Field studies were conducted in 2000, 2001, and 2002 at Urbana, IL, to examine the interference potential of common waterhemp that emerged at soybean growth stages VE, V2-V3, V4-V5, R1-R2, and R3-R4 in 19- and 76-cm row soybean. Soybean row width and common waterhemp emergence timing significantly influenced common waterhemp density, biomass, seed production, mortality, and soybean yield loss. Common waterhemp density declined as emergence timings were at later soybean growth stages. This decline happened at earlier growth stages in narrow-row soybean. Significant reductions in common waterhemp biomass and seed production occurred at the V2-V3 and V4-V5 emergence timings for the narrow- and wide-row soybean, respectively. Common waterhemp seed production was more than 23,000 seeds per plant at the VE emergence timing for both soybean row widths. Survival of common waterhemp that emerged after the V4-V5 soybean growth stage was less than 20% in both row widths. Common waterhemp interference reduced soybean seed yield at the VE, V2-V3, and the V4-V5 emergence timings. Row width affected the magnitude of yield reductions at these interference timings, with reductions being less in narrow-row soybean. This research suggests that control measures need to be implemented to common waterhemp plants that emerge before V4-V5 soybean to protect soybean yield and reduce common waterhemp seed production.
Nomenclature: Common waterhemp, Amaranthus rudis Sauer #3 AMATA; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘Asgrow 3701RR’.
Additional index words: Interference, integrated weed management, late-season competition.