Herbicide-resistant canola dominates the canola market in Canada. A multiyear field experiment was conducted at three locations to investigate the effect of time of weed removal (two-, four-, or six-leaf canola) and herbicide rate (50 or 100% recommended) in three herbicide-resistant canola systems. Weeds were controlled in glufosinate-resistant canola (GLU) with glufosinate, in glyphosate-resistant canola (GLY) with glyphosate, and in imidazolinone-resistant canola (IMI) with a 50:50 mixture of imazamox and imazethapyr. Canola yields were similar among the three canola cultivar–herbicide systems. Yields were not influenced by 50 vs. 100% herbicide rates. Timing of weed removal had the greatest effect on canola yield, with weed removal at the four-leaf stage giving the highest yields in most cases. Percent dockage was often greater for GLU and IMI than for GLY. In comparison with the other treatments, dockage levels doubled for GLU after application at 50% herbicide rates. The consistency of monocot weed control was usually greater for GLY than for GLU or IMI systems. However, weed biomass data revealed no differences in dicot weed control consistency between IMI and GLY systems. Greater dockage and weed biomass variability after weed removal at the six-leaf stage or after low herbicide rates suggests higher weed seed production, which could constrain the adoption of integrated weed management practices in subsequent years.
Nomenclature: Glufosinate; glyphosate; imazamox; imazethapyr; canola, Brassica napus L.
Additional index words: GMO, herbicide-tolerant canola, integrated weed management, time of weed removal.
Abbreviations: GLU, glufosinate-resistant canola; GLY, glyphosate-resistant canola; IMI, imidazolinone-resistant canola; IWM, integrated weed management; POST, postemergence.