Field studies were conducted near Knoxville, TN, during late March and early April 2002 and 2003, respectively, for star-of-Bethlehem control in dormant bermudagrass turf that was established over 25 yr ago. Halosulfuron, imazaquin, metsulfuron, 2,4-D plus dicamba plus mecoprop, and triclopyr plus clopyralid controlled star-of-Bethlehem 35% at most 35 d after treatment (DAT). Bromoxynil alone or mixed with halosulfuron, imazaquin, or metsulfuron controlled star-of-Bethlehem at least 80% at 35 DAT. Imazaquin and imazaquin plus bromoxynil injured bermudagrass 51% 35 DAT. This injury was characterized by decreased bermudagrass postdormancy transition and was transient.
Nomenclature: Bromoxynil; clopyralid; 2,4-D; dicamba; halosulfuron; imazaquin; mecoprop; metsulfuron; triclopyr; common bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. #3 CYNDA; star-of-Bethlehem, Ornithogalum umbellatum L. # OTGUM.
Additional index words: Glyphosate, golf course, postdormancy transition.
Abbreviation: DAT, days after treatment.