Efficacy of trifloxysulfuron with and without surfactant was evaluated against balsamapple, cat's claw vine, Florida beggarweed, hairy beggarticks, ivyleaf morningglory, johnsongrass, prickly sida, redroot pigweed, sicklepod, strangler vine, tall morningglory, and yellow nutsedge at 21, 42, and 63 g ai/ha applied at the four- or six-leaf stages and compared with glyphosate at 280, 560, and 840 g ae/ha. Delayed application from the four- to six-leaf stage significantly reduced trifloxysulfuron efficacy; reduction was less with glyphosate. Trifloxysulfuron plus 0.25% X-77 was more effective on the four-leaf stage than on the six-leaf stage plants of redroot pigweed, johnsongrass, hairy beggarticks, strangler vine, and prickly sida; effect was similar on yellow nutsedge, sicklepod, Florida beggarweed, balsamapple, ivyleaf morningglory, and tall morningglory. Trifloxysulfuron at 63 g/ha plus surfactant reduced the fresh weight of all test plants more than 80% compared with control, except prickly sida, strangler vine, and cat's claw vine. Glyphosate was less effective than trifloxysulfuron plus surfactant against tall morningglory, sicklepod, ivyleaf morningglory, and yellow nutsedge but was significantly better against balsamapple, prickly sida, and cat's claw vine. None of the herbicides provided satisfactory control of cat's claw vine, strangler vine, and prickly sida.
Nomenclature: Glyphosate; trifloxysulfuron; X-77; balsamapple, Momordica charantia L. #3 MOMCH; cat's claw vine, Macfadyena unguis-catsi (L.) A. Gentry # BIGUC; Florida beggarweed, Desmodium tortuosum (Sw.) DC. # DEDTO; hairy beggarticks, Bidens pilosa L. # BIDPI; ivyleaf morningglory, Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq. # IPOHE; johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. # SORHA; prickly sida, Sida spinosa L. # SIDSP; redroot pigweed, Amaranthus retroflexus L. # AMARE; sicklepod, Senna obtusifolia L. # CASOB; strangler vine, Morrenia odorata (H & A) Lindl. # MONOD; tall morningglory, Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth. # PHBPU; yellow nutsedge, Cyperus esculentus L. # CYPES.
Additional index words: Herbicide efficacy, stage of application, surfactant.
Abbreviations: NIS, nonionic surfactant; POST, postemergence; WAT, weeks after treatment.