The fate of imazamox, imazethapyr, and imazaquin in soil was evaluated at various soil moisture levels and at soil pH levels of 5 and 7. The percentage of each herbicide sorbed, desorbed, dissipated, and metabolized over time was compared. Soil was kept at its field pH (pH 7) or modified to a lower pH (pH 5) and equilibrated to field moisture contents ranging from 0.27 to 0.21 g water/ g soil, at and below the field capacity of the soil. Soil moisture in the range studied did not affect the fate of the herbicides. The percentage of applied herbicide found in soil solution was greatest for imazamox and least for imazaquin (imazamox > imazethapyr > imazaquin) and was greater at pH 7 than at pH 5 for all three herbicides. Over time, less herbicide was in the soil solution and less was desorbed. Metabolism followed the same pattern. Among the herbicides, metabolism followed the following sequence, imazamox > imazethapyr > imazaquin with metabolism greater at pH 7 than at pH 5 for all three herbicides. At pH 7, the half-life for imazamox was 1.4 wk and for imazethapyr was 16 wk, and the estimated half-life for imazaquin was 191 wk.
Nomenclature: Imazamox; imazaquin; imazethapyr.
Additional index words: Anionic herbicide, carryover, dissipation, fate, metabolism, persistence, pKa, soil moisture.
Abbreviation: LSC, liquid scintillation counting.