A 2-yr experiment evaluated the effect of spring soil disturbance on the periodicity of weed emergence. At four locations across the northeastern United States, emerged weeds, by species, were monitored every 2 wk in both undisturbed plots and plots tilled in the spring with a rotary cultivator. Eight weed species including large crabgrass, giant and yellow foxtail, common lambsquarters, smooth pigweed, eastern black nightshade, common ragweed, and velvetleaf occurred at three or more site-years. Spring soil disturbance either had no effect or reduced total seedling emergence compared with undisturbed soils. Total seedling emergence for large crabgrass, giant foxtail, smooth pigweed, and common ragweed were on average, 1.4 to 2.6 times less with spring soil disturbance, whereas eastern black nightshade and velvetleaf were mostly unaffected by the soil disturbance. The influence of soil disturbance on yellow foxtail and common lambsquarters emergence varied between seasons and locations. Although the total number of emerged seedlings was often affected by the soil disturbance, with the exception of yellow foxtail and common ragweed, the periodicity of emergence was similar across disturbed and undisturbed treatments.
Nomenclature: Common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L. #3 CHEAL; common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. # AMBEL; eastern black nightshade, Solanum ptycanthum Dun. # SOLPT; giant foxtail, Setaria faberi Herrm. # SETFA; large crabgrass, Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. # DIGSA; smooth pigweed, Amaranthus hybridus L. # AMACH; velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti Medicus # ABUTH; yellow foxtail, Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. # SETLU.
Additional index words: Integrated pest management, periodicity of weed emergence, spring soil disturbance.