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1 July 2005 Sensitivity of Selected Crops to Isoxaflutole in Soil and Irrigation Water
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Isoxaflutole, a preemergence herbicide for use in corn, causes bleaching of plant tissue and plant death at low rates. A concern regarding widespread use of isoxaflutole is the unintentional exposure of high-value, minor hectareage crops that may be sensitive. Unintentional exposure could occur because of carryover from a previous application, spray drift, or contamination of irrigation water. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for injury to nine minor hectareage Michigan crops. Crops evaluated were: adzuki bean, alfalfa, carrot, cucumber, dry bean (navy and black beans), onion, sugar beet, and tomato. Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to evaluate injury from low rates of isoxaflutole applied to soil to simulate carryover as well as low concentrations of isoxaflutole in 2.54 cm of irrigation water applied over the course of 1 h to 15-cm-tall plants. Isoxaflutole rates and concentrations that cause 20% injury (I20) were calculated using Seefeldt's log-logistic dose–response model. Regardless of application type, onion was always the least sensitive plant to isoxaflutole (I20 = 37 g/ha applied to soil and 194 μg/L in irrigation water), whereas navy bean and black bean were the most sensitive (I20 = 9 g/ha applied to soil and 5 μg/ L in irrigation water). The remaining plants exhibited intermediate sensitivity. All of the rates that resulted in injury were substantially less than the rates used for weed control in corn. Carryover from isoxaflutole applications in corn production may require plant back restrictions for certain sensitive crops.

Nomenclature: Alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.; Adzuki bean, Vigna angularis (Willd.); carrot, Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang; cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.; dry bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L.; onion, Allium cepa L.; sugar beet, Beta vulgaris L.; tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.; isoxaflutole.

Additional index words: Carryover, residual, contaminated irrigation water.

ERIC A. NELSON and DONALD PENNER "Sensitivity of Selected Crops to Isoxaflutole in Soil and Irrigation Water," Weed Technology 19(3), 659-663, (1 July 2005).
Published: 1 July 2005

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