Twenty-one grass weeds have evolved resistance to herbicides in Latin America, particularly in rice, soybean, wheat, and orchards. Junglerice, the most widespread and economically important rice weed, evolved resistance to propanil, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibitor herbicides, quinclorac, and imazapyr in Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela. Some junglerice populations are resistant to at least three herbicide modes of action. Other herbicide-resistant (HR) rice weeds are barnyardgrass and gulf cockspur to quinclorac in Brazil, and saramollagrass to ACCase-inhibitor herbicides in Colombia and bispyribac in Venezuela. Populations of weedy rice resistant to imidazolinones are now emerging, most likely originated from gene flow from imidazolinone-resistant rice. Saramollagrass also became resistant to nicosulfuron in corn in Venezuela. Eight species associated with soybean are resistant to ACCase-inhibitor herbicides in Brazil (alexandergrass, goosegrass, and southern crabgrass) and Bolivia (Louisiana cupgrass, itchgrass, sudangrass, and two common wild sorghum species). Four more ACCase-inhibitor–resistant species (hedgehog dogtailgrass, wild oat, rigid ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass) are found in Chile infesting canola and wheat. ACCase-inhibitor–resistant hood canarygrass, littleseed canarygrass, and wild oat are important in wheat in Mexico. Resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor herbicides has been reported in itchgrass, goosegrass, and Mexican grass. Italian ryegrass populations resistant to glyphosate have been found in Chile and Brazil. Glyphosate resistance has also evolved in goosegrass in Bolivia and johnsongrass in Argentina. In general, little is done to prevent resistance evolution. An exception is the stewardship programs aiming to prevent gene flow from imidazolinone-resistant rice to weedy rice. Once resistance evolves, HR populations are mostly managed by shifting to herbicides with different modes of action and, in some cases, by slightly modifying agronomic practices. Propanil formulations containing a synergist are used to manage propanil-resistant junglerice. Increased no-till agriculture and planting of glyphosate-resistant crops are likely to select more glyphosate-resistant weeds.
Nomenclature: Bispyribac; glyphosate; imazapyr; nicosulfuron; propanil; quinclorac; alexandergrass, Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) A. S. Hitchc. BRAPL; barnyardgrass, Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. ECHCG; common wild sorghum, Sorghum verticilliflorum (Steud.) Stapf. and saccharatumS. (L.) Moench; goosegrass, Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. ELEIN; gulf cockspur, Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Kunth) J. A. Schultes. ECHCV; hedgehog dogtailgrass, Cynosurus echinatus L. CYXEC; hood canarygrass, Phalaris paradoxa L. PHAPA; Italian ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum Lam. LOLMU; itchgrass, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) W. D. Clayton. ROOEX; johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. SORHA; junglerice, Echinochloa colona (L.) Link ECHCO; littleseed canarygrass, Phalaris minor Retz. PHAMI; Louisiana cupgrass, Eriochloa punctata (L.) Desv. ex Hamilt. ERBPO; Mexican grass, Ixophorus unisetus (Presl) Schult. SETUN; rigid ryegrass, Lolium rigidum Gaudin. LOLRI; saramollagrass, Ischaemum rugosum Salisb. ISCRU; southern crabgrass, Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel. DIGSP; sudangrass, Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf. SORSU; weedy rice, Oryza sativa L. ORYSA; wild oat, Avena fatua L. AVEFA; canola, Brassica napus L; corn, Zea mays L; rice, Oryza sativa L; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr; wheat, Triticum aestivum L.