Virginia creeper and wild grape are troublesome perennial vines that often infest Christmas tree plantations. Field studies were conducted to evaluate Fraser fir injury and Virginia creeper and wild grape control with directed applications of triclopyr (1,680 g ai/ha) alone and in combination with 2,4-D (1,120 g ai/ha), clopyralid (280 g ai/ha), and halosulfuron (36 g ai/ha). Additional treatments included 2,4-D, clopyralid, glyphosate (1,120 g ai/ha), halosulfuron, hexazinone (560 g ai/ha), mesotrione (105 g ai/ha), and sulfometuron (71 g ai/ha) applied alone; and a mixture of hexazinone plus mesotrione. In the triclopyr-containing treatments, Fraser fir injury ranged from 6 to 13% at 1 mo after treatment (MAT) and was 4 to 8% at 11 MAT. Leader growth was not impacted by the herbicide treatments. At 11 MAT, all triclopyr-containing treatments controlled Virginia creeper 93 to 98% and wild grape 98 to 100%, which was greater than the control observed with glyphosate at 63 and 59%, respectively. Virginia creeper and wild grape control with 2,4-D was 88 to 90%. Clopyralid, halosulfuron, hexazinone, hexazinone plus mesotrione, mesotrione, and sulfometuron provided less than 66% control of both perennial vines. Directed applications of triclopyr-containing treatments or 2,4-D were effective management tools for selective removal of wild grape and Virginia creeper from Fraser fir Christmas tree plantations. Additional research is needed on the potential sensitivity of other commonly grown Christmas tree species to triclopyr-containing treatments.
Nomenclature: Clopyralid; glyphosate; halosulfuron; hexazinone; mesotrione; sulfometuron; triclopyr; 2,4-D; Virginia creeper, Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. PRTQU; wild grape, Vitis spp. VITSP; Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir