Glyphosate-resistance evolution in weeds is evident globally, especially in areas where transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops dominate. Resistance to glyphosate is currently known in 16 weed species, including rigid ryegrass in Australia. Following the first report of glyphosate resistance in 1998, there are now 78 documented glyphosate-resistant populations of rigid ryegrass in grain-growing regions of southern Australia. In some regions where glyphosate-resistance evolution has already occurred in rigid ryegrass, transgenic glyphosate-resistant canola was introduced in 2008, further highlighting the need to monitor glyphosate-resistance evolution in weeds. A rigid ryegrass population (WALR70) was collected in 2005 from a crop field in Esperance, Western Australia, after it had survived applications of glyphosate. Dose–response experiments confirmed resistance in the population, with the glyphosate rate resulting in 50% mortality (LD50) for WALR70 being 11 times greater than that for a susceptible biotype. The WALR70 population also had low levels of resistance to some acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)- and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides (diclofop, fluazifop, clodinafop, tralkoxydim, chlorsulfuron, and imazethapyr), but was susceptible to other herbicide modes of action, such as atrazine, trifluralin, and paraquat. Two other rigid ryegrass populations assessed in this study were also confirmed to be resistant to glyphosate. The increasing number of glyphosate-resistant rigid ryegrass populations in Australia is of concern to growers because of the importance of glyphosate in intensive cropping systems and the introduction of glyphosate-resistant canola to this region.
Nomenclature: Glyphosate; rigid ryegrass, Lolium rigidum Gaudin