A simulation model is used to explore management options to mitigate risks of glyphosate resistance evolution in Palmer amaranth in glyphosate-resistant cotton in the southern United States. Our first analysis compares risks of glyphosate resistance evolution for seven weed-management strategies in continuous glyphosate-resistant cotton monoculture. In the “worst-case scenario” with five applications of glyphosate each year and no other herbicides applied, evolution of glyphosate resistance was predicted in 74% of simulated populations. In other strategies, glyphosate was applied with various combinations of preplant, PRE, and POST residual herbicides. The most effective strategy included four glyphosate applications with a preplant fomesafen application, and POST tank mixtures of glyphosate plus S-metolachlor followed by glyphosate plus flumioxazin. This strategy reduced the resistance risk to 12% of populations. A second series of simulations compared strategies where glyphosate-resistant cotton was grown in one-to-one rotations with corn or cotton with other herbicide resistance traits. In general, crop rotation reduced risks of resistance by approximately 50% and delayed the evolution of resistance by 2 to 3 yr. These analyses demonstrate that risks of glyphosate resistance evolution in Palmer amaranth can be reduced by reducing glyphosate use within and among years, controlling populations with diverse herbicide modes of action, and ensuring that population size is kept low. However, no strategy completely eliminated the risk of glyphosate resistance.
Nomenclature: Flumioxazin; fomesafen; glyphosate; S-metolachlor; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats AMAPA; corn, Zea mays L.; cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.