Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine the effect of halosulfuron, imazosulfuron, and trifloxysulfuron applied through drip irrigation on yellow nutsedge. In greenhouse studies, yellow nutsedge control by halosulfuron, imazosulfuron, and trifloxysulfuron was greater (69 to 91%) than the nontreated control (0%). Yellow nutsedge treated with halosulfuron POST had a lower photosynthetic rate (0.6 to 22.6 µmol m−2 s−1) at 4, 7, and 14 d after treatment than the nontreated control (3.3 to 26.2 µmol m−2 s−1). Yellow nutsedge treated with trifloxysulfuron had lower photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance than the nontreated plants. In field studies at Clinton, NC, yellow nutsedge density increased from treatment (day 0) to 56 d after treatment in all treatments. Increase in yellow nutsedge density was 72 and 95% in drip-applied halosulfuron and imazosulfuron treatments compared with yellow nutsedge density increases of 876% for the same period in the nontreated plots. Yellow nutsedge density increased 69 and 57% at Clinton and Kinston, NC, respectively, in the drip-applied 15 g ha−1 trifloxysulfuron treatment compared with 876% in the nontreated control. In field studies at Clinton and Kinston, NC, suppression of yellow nutsedge emergence in POST and drip-applied herbicide treatments was similar. Emergence of yellow nutsedge was similar in the imazosulfuron POST and the nontreated yellow nutsedge. Based on these studies, drip-applied herbicides may be beneficial as a part of a yellow nutsedge control program, but additional measures, such as a POST herbicide, would be needed for effective control. Drip-applied herbicides may give growers an option for herbicide application after drip irrigation tape and polyethylene mulch have been installed in the current vegetable crops. This application method would also allow herbicide treatment under plastic mulch used for multicropping systems.
Nomenclature: Halosulfuron; imazosulfuron; trifloxysulfuron; yellow nutsedge, Cyperus esculentus L.