Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a carbon band to provide a “safe zone” for seedling emergence and growth of three native grass species. ‘KIKA677’ streambed bristlegrass germplasm, ‘Alamo’ switchgrass, and ‘Waelder’ shortspike windmillgrass germplasm were used in combination with several PRE- and POST-applied herbicides including cloransulam, flumioxazin, imazapic, imazethapyr, and 2,4-D. In a greenhouse experiment, switchgrass emergence was improved when a carbon band was used with imazapic or imazethapyr at 0.04 and 0.07 kg ai ha−1 or 2,4-D at 2.12 kg ae ha−1. Windmillgrass emergence was improved when carbon was used in combination with flumioxazin at 0.05 and 0.1 kg ai ha−1, imazapic at 0.04 and 0.07 kg ha−1, imazethapyr at 0.07 kg ha−1, and 2,4-D at 1.06 kg ha−1, whereas bristlegrass emergence was improved when carbon was used in combination with flumioxazin at 0.1 kg ai ha−1, imazapic at both rates, and imazethapyr at 0.04 kg ha−1. Field studies indicated that flumioxazin at 0.05 and 0.1 kg ha−1, imazapic at 0.04 kg ha−1, and imazethapyr at 0.04 and 0.07 kg ha−1, were safened for bristlegrass and switchgrass emergence when used with carbon. Windmillgrass emergence and growth were improved when carbon was used in combination with flumioxazin at 0.1 kg ha−1.
Nomenclature: Cloransulam; 2,4-D; flumioxazin; imazapic; imazethapyr; switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L. ‘Alamo’; streambed bristlegrass, Setaria leucopila (Scribn. & Merr.) K. Schum. ‘KIKA677’; shortspike windmillgrass, Chloris subdolichostachya Nash ‘Waelder’.