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1 April 2014 Characterization of Fluazifop-P-butyl Tolerance in Zoysiagrass Cultivars
Ramon G. Leon, J. Bryan Unruh, Barry J. Brecke, Kevin E. Kenworthy
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POST control of grass weed species and contaminant turfgrass species, such as common and hybrid bermudagrass, is a major challenge in zoysiagrass. Fluazifop-P-butyl is a POST herbicide that can provide selective grass weed control with limited injury to zoysiagrass. However, because of the extent of genetic variation among zoysiagrass cultivars, it was proposed that fluazifop-P-butyl tolerance was cultivar dependent. Dose–response field studies were conducted in Jay, FL, in 2012 and 2013, evaluating the tolerance of 11 commercial zoysiagrass cultivars and common bermudagrass to 0, 44, 88, 131, 175, and 263 g ai ha−1 of fluazifop-P-butyl. ‘Empire' and ‘Meyer' zoysiagrass were injured 30% or less at 2 wk after treatment (WAT) when treated with 131 g ha−1 of fluazifop-P-butyl or less. Conversely, ‘Zeon' and ‘PristineFlora' reached from 30 to more than 50% injury between 2 and 4 WAT with 44 and 88 g ha−1 fluazifop-P-butyl. ‘Geo', ‘Crowne', ‘JaMur', and ‘UltimateFlora' showed intermediate injury (i.e. ≤ 60% with 175 and 264 g ha−1) and a recovery period longer than 4 WAT. ‘Emerald', ‘Palisades', and ‘Royal' also showed intermediate injury (i.e., 30 to 65% with 175 and 264 g ha−1), which peaked at 2 WAT and then rapidly declined below 25% injury at 4 WAT. By 8 WAT, all zoysiagrass cultivars had recovered, and no injury was observed. Results from a greenhouse experiment demonstrated that differences observed in the field were cultivar related, especially for the lower tolerance level observed in Zeon and PristineFlora. There is potential to increase fluazifop-P-butyl tolerance in zoysiagrass because of the observed variation among 80 zoysiagrass breeding lines.

Nomenclature: Fluazifop-P-butyl; zoysiagrass; Zoysia spp.; Zoysia japonica Steud.; 'Crowne'; 'Empire'; 'JaMur'; 'Meyer'; 'Palisades'; 'UltimateFlora'; Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr. ‘PristineFlora'; ‘Zeon'; Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr. × Zoysia japonica Steud. ‘Royal'; Zoysia japonica Steud. × Zoysia pacifica (Goudsw.) M. Hotta & S. Kuroki; ‘Emerald'; ‘Geo'.

El control POST de malezas gramíneas y de especies de césped contaminantes, tales como el césped bermuda y bermuda híbrido, es uno de los mayores retos en el césped zoysia. Fluazifop-P-butyl es un herbicida POST que puede brindar un control selectivo de malezas gramíneas causando un daño limitado al césped zoysia. Sin embargo, debido al nivel de variación genética entre cultivares del césped zoysia, se propuso que la tolerancia a fluazifop-P-butyl depende del cultivar. Se realizaron estudios de respuesta a dosis en condiciones de campo en Jay, Florida, en 2012 y 2013, para evaluar la tolerancia de 11 cultivares comerciales de césped Zoysia y de el césped bermuda común a 0, 44, 88, 131, 175, y 263 kg ai ha−1 de fluazifop-P-butyl. Los céspedes zoysia ‘Empire' y ‘Meyer' tuvieron un daño de 30% o menor a 2 semanas después del tratamiento (WAT) cuando fueron tratados con 131 g ha−1 de fluazifop-P-butyl o menos. En cambio, ‘Zeon' y ‘PristineFlora' alcanzaron niveles de daño desde 30 hasta más de 50% entre 2 y 4 WAT con 44 y 88 g ha−1 de fluazifop-P-butyl. ‘Geo', ‘Crowne', ‘JaMur', y ‘UltimateFlora' mostraron daño intermedio (i.e. ≤60% con 175 a 264 g ha−1) y un período de recuperación superior a 4 WAT. ‘Emerald', ‘Palisades', y ‘Royal' también mostraron un daño intermedio (i.e. 30 a 65% con 175 a 264 g ha−1), el cual tuvo el pico mayor a 2 WAT, y disminuyó rápidamente por debajo de 25% de daño a 4 WAT. A 8 WAT, todos los cultivares de césped zoysia se habían recuperado, y no se observó daño alguno.

Ramon G. Leon, J. Bryan Unruh, Barry J. Brecke, and Kevin E. Kenworthy "Characterization of Fluazifop-P-butyl Tolerance in Zoysiagrass Cultivars," Weed Technology 28(2), 385-394, (1 April 2014).
Received: 15 September 2013; Accepted: 1 January 2014; Published: 1 April 2014
chemical control
genetic resources
integrated weed management
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