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1 August 2015 Flumioxazin Tank-Mixtures with Six Herbicides for Annual Bluegrass ( Poa annua) Control in Bermudagrass
Thomas V. Reed, Patrick E. McCullough, Timothy Grey, Mark A. Czarnota, William K. Vencill, F. Clint Waltz
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Abstract

Flumioxazin is a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor with potential for POST annual bluegrass control and PRE smooth crabgrass control in bermudagrass. However, flumioxazin applications are often less effective in winter, compared with fall, because of reduced efficacy on mature annual bluegrass. The objective of this research was to evaluate tank-mixtures of flumioxazin with six other herbicide mechanisms of action for POST annual bluegrass control in late winter and residual smooth crabgrass control. Flumioxazin at 0 or 0.42 kg ai ha−1 was evaluated in combination with flazasulfuron at 0.05 kg ai ha−1, glufosinate at 1.26 kg ai ha−1, glyphosate at 0.42 kg ae ha−1, mesotrione at 0.28 kg ai ha−1, pronamide at 1.68 kg ai ha−1, or simazine at 1.12 kg ai ha−1. Flumioxazin alone controlled annual bluegrass 61 to 70% at 8 wk after treatment (WAT) in three experiments from 2012 to 2014 in central Georgia. Flumioxazin tank-mixed with flazasulfuron, glyphosate, glufosinate, pronamide, and simazine provided good (80 to 89%) to excellent (> 90%) control of annual bluegrass at 8 WAT in 2 of 3 yr. These tank-mixtures were also more effective than flumioxazin alone in 2 of 3 yr, and control was greater or equal to the tank-mix partners applied alone. Treatments that included flumioxazin provided excellent (≥ 90%) control of smooth crabgrass at 6 mo after treatment in all 3 yr. Overall, tank-mixing flumioxazin with other herbicide chemistries may improve POST annual bluegrass control, compared with exclusive treatments, and effectively control smooth crabgrass in bermudagrass.

Nomenclature: Flazasulfuron; flumioxazin; glufosinate; glyphosate; mesotrione; pronamide; simazine; annual bluegrass, Poa annua L.; smooth crabgrass, Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl.; bermudagrass × African dogstooth grass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt Davy ‘Tifway'.

Flumioxazin es un inhibidor de protoporphyrinogen oxidase con potencial para el control POST de Poa annua y PRE de Digitaria ischaemum en el césped bermuda. Sin embargo, las aplicaciones de flumioxazin frecuentemente son menos efectivas en el invierno, al compararse con las aplicaciones en el otoño, debido a una menor eficacia en plantas adultas de P. annua. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar mezclas en tanque de flumioxazin con herbicidas de otros seis mecanismos de acción para el control POST de P. annua tarde en el invierno y para el control residual de D. ischaemum. Se evaluó flumioxazin a 0 ó 0.42 kg ai ha−1 en combinación con flazasulfuron a 0.05 kg ai ha−1, glufosinate a 1.26 kg ai ha−1, glyphosate a 0.42 kg ae ha−1, mesotrione a 0.28 kg ai ha−1, pronamide a 1.68 kg ai ha−1, o simazine a 1.12 kg ai ha−1. Flumioxazin solo controló P. annua 61 a 70% a 8 semanas después del tratamiento (WAT) en tres experimentos desde 2012 a 2014, en el centro de Georgia. Flumioxazin mezclado en tanque con flazasulfuron, glyphosate, glufosinate, pronamide, y simazine brindó un control de P. annua de bueno (80 a 89%) a excelente (> 90%) a 8 WAT en 2 de 3 años. Estas mezclas en tanque también fueron más efectivas que flumioxazin solo en 2 de 3 años, y el control fue mayor o igual que los herbicidas de la mezcla aplicados solos. Los tratamientos que incluyeron flumioxazin brindaron un control de

Thomas V. Reed, Patrick E. McCullough, Timothy Grey, Mark A. Czarnota, William K. Vencill, and F. Clint Waltz "Flumioxazin Tank-Mixtures with Six Herbicides for Annual Bluegrass ( Poa annua) Control in Bermudagrass," Weed Technology 29(3), 561-569, (1 August 2015). https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-14-00109.1
Received: 25 August 2014; Accepted: 1 March 2015; Published: 1 August 2015
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