A major hindrance to establishment of successful complementary forage systems that include warm-season perennial grasses and clovers is tolerance of the latter to herbicides available for weed control. Field experiments were conducted in 2013 at two locations in northeast Louisiana to evaluate simulated residual rate effects of fluroxypyr plus triclopyr and 2,4-D plus picloram applied at 0, 0.25, 0.38, and 0.5× use rates immediately after fall planting of ball, white, crimson, and red clover. For all clovers, when averaged across herbicide rates, plant population 161/171 d after planting (DAP), ground cover, and height 184/196 DAP were equivalent for fluroxypyr plus triclopyr and the nontreated control and greater than 2,4-D plus picloram. Averaged across clovers, plant height after all rates of fluroxypyr plus triclopyr was equivalent to the nontreated control (14.2 to 14.3 vs. 15.3 cm) and greater than 2,4-D plus picloram. Compared with the nontreated control, 2,4-D plus picloram at 25, 38, and 50% of the normal use rates reduced height 58, 76, and 85%, respectively. When averaged across clover species, yield for fluroxypyr plus triclopyr at all rates was equivalent to the nontreated control (2,624 to 2,840 vs. 2,812 kg ha−1). Compared with the nontreated control, 2,4-D plus picloram at the 0.25, 0.38, and 0.50× use rates reduced yield 65, 89, and 99%, respectively.
Nomenclature: 2,4-D; fluroxypyr; picloram; triclopyr; ball clover, Trifolium nigrescens viv.;crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum L.; red clover, Trifolium pretense L.; white clover, Trifolium repens L.