2,4-dimethylamine salt (2,4-D) is a selective broadleaf herbicide commonly applied to turfgrass systems, including athletic fields, which can dislodge from treated vegetation. Building on previous research confirming 2,4-D dislodgeability is affected by management inputs, field research was initiated in 2014 and 2015 in North Carolina and Tennessee to quantify the effects of sprayer setup on dislodgeable 2,4-D foliar residue from hybrid bermudagrass, which is the most common athletic field playing surface in subtropical and tropical climates. More specifically, research evaluated dislodgeable 2,4-D foliar residue following spray applications (2.1 kg ae ha-1) at varying carrier volumes (187, 374, or 748 L ha-1) and nozzles delivering varying droplet sizes (fine = extended range [XR], coarse = drift guard, or extra coarse = air induction extended range [AIXR]). Overall, data suggest minimal 2,4-D dislodge occurs via soccer ball roll (3.6 m) outside the day of application; however, increasing carrier volume and droplet size can further decrease dislodgeable 2,4-D foliar residue. At 2 d after treatment (DAT), 3.87% of applied 2,4-D dislodged when applied at 187 L ha-1 compared to 2.05% at 748 L ha-1. Pooled over data from 1 to 6 DAT, 1.59% of applied 2,4-D dislodged following XR nozzle application compared to 1.13% with AIXR nozzle. While these are small numerical differences, dislodgeable residue was measured via one soccer ball roll, which is a repeated process within the sport and the additive effect of sprayer setup treatments can be employed by turfgrass managers to reduce potential human 2,4-D human exposure.
Nomenclature: 2,4-D; hybrid bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × Cynodon transvalensis Burtt-Davy.