Crop management practices such as tillage can influence the dissipation of herbicides in soil. This study aimed to determine the effects of tillage systems on soil dissipation of prosulfocarb (PSC) using two assessment methods: bioassay and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. PSC was applied on plots cultivated under three tillage systems (moldboard plowing, tine tillage at 8- to 10-cm soil depth, and direct drilling) at different rates (0, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000 and 8,000 g ai ha-1) and two spraying times, representing early and late sowing time of winter cereals in Denmark. The experiment was conducted over 2 yr. The soil was analyzed for PSC residues by HPLC and a bioassay, using silky windgrass as the indicator plant. Neither technique revealed an effect of tillage systems on PSC dissipation, but the LD50 values estimated based on the bioassays were generally lower under direct drilling (11.7 d) than with plowing (17.5 d). Moreover, LD50 estimates based on bioassay results were generally lower than those estimated with HPLC analyses. Half-life values estimated with HPLC were low and not within the range of values reported in the literature (ca. 20 d), suggesting enhanced degradation of PSC. In addition to influencing the performance of PSC against problematic weed species, an enhanced dissipation rate could also hamper the benefits of PSC in an antiresistance strategy.
Nomenclature: Prosulfocarb; silky windgrass, Apera spicaventi (L.) Beauv. APESV