Double-crop soybean after winter wheat is a component of many cropping systems across eastern and central Kansas. Until recently, control of Palmer amaranth and common waterhemp has been both easy and economical with the use of sequential applications of glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant soybean. Many populations of Palmer amaranth and common waterhemp have become resistant to glyphosate. During 2015 and 2016, a total of five field experiments were conducted near Manhattan, Hutchinson, and Ottawa, KS, to assess various non-glyphosate herbicide programs at three different application timings for the control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp in double-crop soybean after winter wheat. Spring-POST treatments of pyroxasulfone (119 g ai ha–1) and pendimethalin (1065 g ai ha–1) were applied to winter wheat to evaluate residual control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp. Less than 40% control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp was observed in both treatments 2 wk after planting (WAP) double-crop soybean. Preharvest treatments of 2,4-D (561 g ae ha–1) and flumioxazin (107 g ai ha–1) were also applied to the winter wheat to assess control of emerged Palmer amaranth and waterhemp. 2,4-D resulted in highly variable Palmer amaranth and waterhemp control, whereas flumioxazin resulted in control similar to PRE treatments that contained paraquat (841 g ai ha–1) plus residual herbicide(s). Excellent control of both species was observed 2 WAP with a PRE paraquat application; however, reduced control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp was noted 8 WAP due to subsequent emergence. Results indicate that Palmer amaranth and waterhemp control was 85% or greater 8 WAP for PRE treatments that included a combination of paraquat plus residual herbicide(s). PRE treatments that did not include both paraquat and residual herbicide(s) did not provide acceptable control.
Nomenclature: 2,4-D; flumioxazin; glyphosate; paraquat; pendimethalin; pyroxasulfone; common waterhemp, Amaranthus rudis J. D. Sauer. AMATA; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson AMAPA; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr; wheat, Triticum aestivum L