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12 September 2019 Sensitivity of dry edible bean to dicamba and 2,4-D
Scott R. Bales, Christy L. Sprague
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Dicamba and 2,4-D exposure to sensitive crops, such as dry bean, is of great concern with the recent registrations of dicamba- and 2,4-D–resistant soybean. In 2017 and 2018, field experiments were conducted at two Michigan locations to understand how multiple factors, including dry bean market class, herbicide rate, and application timing, influence dry bean response to dicamba and 2,4-D. Dicamba and 2,4-D at rates of 0.1%, 1%, and 10% of the field use rate for dicamba and 2,4-D choline were applied to V2 and V8 black and navy bean. Field-use rates for dicamba and 2,4-D choline were 560 and 1,120 g ae ha–1, respectively. There were few differences between market classes or application timings when dry bean was exposed to dicamba or 2,4-D. Estimated rates to cause 20% dry bean injury 14 d after treatment were 4.5 and 107.5 g ae ha–1 for dicamba and 2,4-D, respectively. When dicamba was applied at 56 g ae ha–1, light interception was reduced up to 51% and maturity was delayed up to 16 d. Although both herbicides caused high levels of injury to dry bean, yield reductions were not consistently observed. At four site-years, 2,4-D did not reduce dry bean yield or seed weight with any rate tested. However, when averaged over site-years, dicamba rates of 3.7, 9.8 and 17.9 g ae ha–1 were estimated to cause 5%, 10%, and 15% yield loss, respectively. Dicamba also reduced seed weight by 10% when 56 g ae ha–1 was applied. However, the germination of harvested seed was not affected by dicamba or 2,4-D. Long delays in dry bean maturity from dicamba injury can also indirectly increase losses in yield and quality due to harvestability issues. This work further stresses the need for caution when using dicamba or 2,4-D herbicides near sensitive crops.

Nomenclature: 2,4-D choline; dicamba; dry bean; Phaseolus vulgaris L

© Weed Science Society of America, 2019.
Scott R. Bales and Christy L. Sprague "Sensitivity of dry edible bean to dicamba and 2,4-D," Weed Technology 34(1), 117-124, (12 September 2019).
Received: 4 June 2019; Accepted: 27 November 2019; Published: 12 September 2019
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