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24 September 2019 Tank contamination with dicamba and 2,4-D influences dry edible bean
Scott R. Bales, Christy L. Sprague
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The occurrence of herbicide tank contamination with dicamba or 2,4-D will likely increase with the recent commercialization of dicamba- and 2,4-D-resistant soybean. High-value sensitive crops, including dry bean, will be at higher risks for exposure. In 2017 and 2018, two separate field experiments were conducted in Michigan to understand how multiple factors may influence dry bean response to dicamba and 2,4-D herbicides, including 1) the interaction between herbicides applied POST to dry bean and dicamba or 2,4-D, and 2) the impact of low rates of glyphosate with dicamba or 2,4-D. Dry bean injury was 20% and 2% from POST applications of dicamba (5.6 h ae ha–1) and 2,4-D (11.2 g ae ha–1), respectively, 14 days after treatment (DAT). The addition of glyphosate (8.4 g ae ha–1) did not increase dry bean injury from dicamba or 2,4-D. Over 2 site-years the addition of dry bean herbicides to dicamba or dicamba + glyphosate (8.4 g ae ha–1) increased dry bean injury and reduced yield by 6% to 10% more than when dicamba or dicamba + glyphosate was applied alone. The interaction between 2,4-D (11.2 g ae ha–1) and dry bean herbicides was determined to be synergistic. However, 2,4-D (11.2 g ae ha–1) had little effect on dry bean with or without the addition of a dry bean herbicide program. These studies document that synergy also occurs between dicamba and dicamba + glyphosate and both common dry bean herbicide programs tested: 1) imazamox (35 g ha–1) + bentazon (560 g ha–1), and 2) fomesafen (280 g ha–1). The synergy between dry bean herbicide and dicamba and dicamba + glyphosate can increase plant injury, delay maturity, and reduce yield to a greater extent than dicamba or dicamba + glyphosate alone. This work emphasizes the need to properly clean out sprayers after applications of dicamba to reduce the risk of exposure to other crops.

Nomenclature: 2,4-D choline; dicamba; dry bean; Phaseolus vulgaris L.

© Weed Science Society of America, 2019.
Scott R. Bales and Christy L. Sprague "Tank contamination with dicamba and 2,4-D influences dry edible bean," Weed Technology 34(1), 89-95, (24 September 2019).
Received: 4 June 2019; Accepted: 16 September 2019; Published: 24 September 2019
2,4-D-resistant soybean
black bean
dicamba-resistant soybean
spray tank-contamination
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