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27 November 2019 Influence of 2,4-D, dicamba, and glyphosate on clethodim efficacy of volunteer glyphosate-resistant corn
Nick T. Harre, Julie M. Young, Bryan G. Young
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Management of volunteer glyphosate-resistant (GR) corn may be problematic in soybean resistant to glyphosate and 2,4-D or dicamba, as auxinic herbicides often antagonize graminicide efficacy. Field and greenhouse trials were conducted using mixtures of 2,4-D or dicamba in combination with glyphosate and clethodim-A (formulated without an adjuvant) or clethodim-SM (adjuvant-inclusive formulation) to determine the effect on volunteer GR corn control. Neither auxinic herbicide reduced clethodim efficacy, regardless of clethodim rate or formulation in field trials. However, the addition of glyphosate to these mixtures at the 35 g ai ha–1 clethodim dose reduced control from clethodim-A and clethodim-SM by 62% to 75% and 27% to 47%, respectively. Increasing the clethodim dose to 105 g ha–1 or greater in combination with glyphosate and either auxinic herbicide generally restored clethodim efficacy (74% to 98% control); in one site-year, the addition of glyphosate plus dicamba to clethodim-A at 140 g ha–1 still reduced control by 34%. In greenhouse experiments, clethodim-A efficacy was reduced by 17% and 28% when applied with glyphosate plus 420 and 1,680 g ae ha–1 2,4-D, respectively, in the absence of crop oil concentrate (COC). Increasing the dose of dicamba in a similar mixture had a negligible effect. Irrespective of auxinic herbicide dose, the inclusion of COC to clethodim-A mixtures with glyphosate plus 2,4-D or dicamba resulted in ≥ 90% control. These results specify an enhanced risk of reduced clethodim efficacy on volunteer GR corn when glyphosate is added to mixtures containing 2,4-D or dicamba. To optimize control from these mixtures, clethodim should be applied at ≥ 105 g ha–1 and should include an activator adjuvant in the form of COC and/or an adjuvant-inclusive clethodim formulation. This recommendation contrasts with several labels of clethodim that do not require COC when applied with adjuvant-loaded glyphosate products.

Nomenclature: 2,4-D; clethodim; dicamba; glyphosate; corn, Zea mays L.; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr

© Weed Science Society of America, 2019.
Nick T. Harre, Julie M. Young, and Bryan G. Young "Influence of 2,4-D, dicamba, and glyphosate on clethodim efficacy of volunteer glyphosate-resistant corn," Weed Technology 34(3), 394-401, (27 November 2019).
Received: 26 August 2019; Accepted: 13 November 2019; Published: 27 November 2019
Auxinic herbicide
foliar herbicide application
herbicide antagonism
Herbicide interaction
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