Integrated strategies for management of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed are needed to reduce reliance on herbicides. Planting a cover crop after corn or soybean harvest in the Upper Midwest may reduce horseweed establishment and growth. Experiments were conducted in Michigan to determine if cereal rye and winter wheat, seeded at 67 or 135 kg ha-1, and terminated with glyphosate at 1.27 kg ae ha-1 1 wk before planting (early termination) or 1 wk after soybean planting (planting green) would suppress establishment and growth of GR horseweed. Cover-crop biomass was 212% to 272% higher when termination was delayed by planting green compared with early termination. At the time of termination, cover crops reduced GR horseweed biomass 41% to 89% compared with no cover. Planting green increased the C:N ratio of cover-crop residue, which improved residue persistence and GR horseweed suppression at the time of POST herbicide application, approximately 5 wk after planting. Planting green reduced GR horseweed biomass 46% to 93% compared with no cover at the time of POST herbicide application; early termination provided less consistent suppression. Cover crops alone did not suppress GR horseweed through soybean harvest. Soybean yield was 30% to 108% greater when planting green compared with early termination at 2 site-years. Cereal rye and winter wheat, seeded at 67 or 135 kg ha-1, provided early-season GR horseweed suppression. Results from this research indicate that the practice of planting green may improve GR horseweed suppression through the time of POST herbicide application.
Nomenclature: Glyphosate; horseweed, Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.; winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L.; cereal rye, Secale cereale L.; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr