A paper-based survey was conducted from 2015 to 2017 among stakeholders of the Texas rice industry on current weed management challenges and factors influencing management decisions. A total of 108 survey questionnaires were completed by stakeholders at the rice Cooperative Extension meetings conducted in the rice-growing counties of Texas. In addition, late-season field surveys were conducted prior to harvest in 2015 and 2016 across the rice-growing counties to understand dominant weed escapes occurring in rice fields. Results from the questionnaire survey revealed that rice–fallow–rice was the most common rotation practiced in Texas rice production. Echinochloa spp., Leptochloa spp., and Cyperus spp. were the top three problematic weed issues faced by the respondents. Among the Leptochloa species, Nealley's sprangletop, a relatively new species in rice fields, was indicated as an emerging concern. Clomazone was the most frequently used PRE herbicide, whereas quinclorac, propanil, imazethapyr, and cyhalofop were the popular POST herbicides. Most respondents (72%) made weed-control decisions on the basis of economic thresholds, whereas 63% made decisions on the basis of weed problems from previous years. Most respondents (88%) expressed moderate to high concern for herbicide-resistant weeds in their operations. Strategies to manage herbicide-resistant weeds and economical weed management practices were among the top suggested research needs. The field survey revealed that jungle rice, Nealley's sprangletop, and hemp sesbania were the top three late-season weed escapes in rice production in Texas, with frequencies of occurrence of 28%, 19%, and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, average field area infested by a species was the greatest for jungle rice (13%), followed by hemp sesbania (11%) and weedy rice (11%). Findings from the stakeholder and field surveys help direct future research and outreach efforts for sustainable weed management in Texas rice.
Nomenclature: Clomazone; cyhalofop; imazethapyr; propanil; quinclorac; hemp sesbania; Sesbania herbacea (Mill.) McVaugh; jungle rice; Echinochloa colona (L.) Link; Nealley's sprangletop; Leptochloa nealleyi Vasey; rice; Oryza sativa L.; weedy rice; Oryza sativa L.