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22 August 2022 Hazelnut tolerance to basal-directed applications of clopyralid and quinclorac
Rafael M. Pedroso, Marcelo L. Moretti
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Field studies were conducted to determine hazelnut tolerance to quinclorac and clopyralid and control efficacy of Canada thistle and field bindweed at three commercial orchards in western Oregon. Hazelnut cultivars evaluated included ‘Jefferson’, ‘Wepster’, and ‘McDonald’. Clopyralid at 278, 547, and 1,090 g ae ha–1, and quinclorac at 420, 840, and 1,680 g ai ha–1 were applied once a year as basal-directed applications to trees that were 1, 2, and 5 yr old. Treatments were imposed in the early spring of 2019 and reapplied in 2020. In both years, treatments covered hazelnut suckers. Hazelnut injury from clopyralid and quinclorac was consistently between 0% and 13% and not different from nontreated control plants (P > 0.05) between 14 d and 455 d after initial treatment. Similarly, there was no treatment effect on plant canopy index, leaf chlorophyll content, trunk cross-sectional area, internode length, or yield among treatments, even at the highest rates of clopyralid and quinclorac. In separate efficacy studies, clopyralid (278 g ae ha–1) resulted in 68% Canada thistle control and did not differ when clopyralid was mixed with carfentrazone (278 + 35 g ai ha–1) or glufosinate (278 + 1,148 g ai ha–1). Clopyralid-containing herbicide treatments suppressed field bindweed growth but did not kill plants even when mixed with carfentrazone or glufosinate. Quinclorac (420 g ha–1) alone provided 80% control of field bindweed and 93% and 98% control when combined with rimsulfuron (35 g ai ha–1) or carfentrazone (35 g ai ha–1), respectively. Still, all herbicide treatments resulted in similar field bindweed biomass. Results indicate that clopyralid and quinclorac are effective tools to help manage Canada thistle and field bindweed and that hazelnut can tolerate clopyralid and quinclorac at rates equivalent to 4-fold commercial-use rates not affecting plant growth and yield.

Nomenclature: Carfentrazone; clopyralid; glufosinate; quinclorac; rimsulfuron; Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.; field bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis L.; hazelnut, Corylus avellana L.

© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Weed Science Society of America.
Rafael M. Pedroso and Marcelo L. Moretti "Hazelnut tolerance to basal-directed applications of clopyralid and quinclorac," Weed Technology 36(4), 576-582, (22 August 2022).
Received: 2 April 2022; Accepted: 23 July 2022; Published: 22 August 2022
Auxinic herbicide
crop tolerance
perennial weed
tree nuts
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