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1 June 2023 Dose-response of five weed species to indaziflam and oxadiazon
Shwetha S. Ramanathan, Travis W. Gannon, Patrick J. Maxwell
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Indaziflam and oxadiazon are efficacious preemergence herbicides used in warm-season turfgrass because of their persistence and residual activity. It is beneficial to quantify effective concentrations for preemergence control of summer annual weeds and determine whether these concentrations are maintained throughout weed emergence periods. Therefore, greenhouse bioassays were conducted with barnyardgrass, broadleaf signalgrass, doveweed, large crabgrass, and purple nutsedge. Treatments included indaziflam at 0, 4, 8, 12, 17, 21, 25, 29, 33, and 37 g ai ha-1 or oxadiazon at 0, 420, 841, 1,260, 1,681, 2,102, 2,354, 2,942, 3,363, and 3,783 g ha-1. Although preemergence herbicides are not used to control perennial weeds, purple nutsedge was included to investigate the effect of selected herbicides on its growth. Herbicide EC50, EC80, and EC90 for seedling emergence inhibition and shoot and root mass reduction were quantified from log-logistic dose–response curves. Herbicide concentration that remains from a preemergence application during the regional species-specific periodicity of emergence was predicted using first-order kinetics equations. Indaziflam and oxadiazon controlled seedling emergence 14 d after treatment (DAT) in the evaluated annual weeds and shoot and root mass in all species 84 DAT. Indaziflam applied in mid-March at 33 g ha-1 may provide up to 90% seedling emergence inhibition in large crabgrass and signalgrass; up to 80% in barnyardgrass; and up to 50% in doveweed. Oxadiazon applied in mid-March at 3,363 g ha-1 may provide up to 80% seedling emergence inhibition in all species. Indaziflam and oxadiazon may control up to 80% shoot mass and up to 50% root mass, respectively, in purple nutsedge and 80% to 90% shoot or root mass in other species. Such information is useful in evaluating adequacy of herbicide management practices for season-long weed control, and it aids turfgrass managers in applying preemergence herbicides at optimal timing based on target weed species.

Nomenclature: Indaziflam; oxadiazon; barnyardgrass; Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.; broadleaf signalgrass; Bracharia platyphylla (Griseb.) Nash; doveweed; Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan; large crabgrass; Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.; purple nutsedge, Cyperus rotundus L.

Shwetha S. Ramanathan, Travis W. Gannon, and Patrick J. Maxwell "Dose-response of five weed species to indaziflam and oxadiazon," Weed Technology 37(3), 303-312, (1 June 2023).
Received: 28 February 2023; Accepted: 25 May 2023; Published: 1 June 2023
effective concentration
log-logistic model
periodicity of emergence
preemergence herbicides
turfgrass weed control
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