In the White River National Wildlife Refuge, we located and monitored 39 Mississippi Kite (Ictinia mississippiensis) nests during the 2004 and 2005 breeding seasons to examine reproductive success and causes of nesting failures. Nest failures were documented using five video recording systems. All kite nests not monitored with a video recording system were observed every 3 or 4 d. The apparent reproductive success during this study was 28.2% (n = 39 nests). Using the Mayfield estimator, we determined the nest success to be 36.3% over 1226 nest-exposure days with a daily nest survival of 0.9837. We recorded seven nest failures and eight probable predation attempts. Predation was the most common cause of nest failures of video observed nests (57%), with western rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) being the most common predator of kite eggs and nestlings. Other observed nest failures included nest abandonment, a chick falling out of a nest, and an infertile egg. Reproductive success reported in this study was the second lowest (28%) of all Mississippi Kite studies. This low reproductive success rate is likely not adequate to support a viable population in the White River National Wildlife Refuge, indicating this may currently be a sink population.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 29 • No. 2