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1 September 1996 Ecological and economic consequences of introductions of exotic wildlife (birds and mammals) in Germany
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This paper describes the ecological and economic consequences of introduced bird and mammal species for fauna, flora and habitats, for forestry and agriculture and also for other parts of the land developed and cultivated by man. The results presented are based on enquiries to various institutions for the environment, nature conservation, agriculture, forestry and game as well as on the analysis of scientific data from various sources including the author's. Allochthonous bird and mammal species occurring in Germany are mentioned. Examples of interspecific competition for resources between allochthonous and autochthonous species, of changes to habitats by exotic species, of interbreeding and of the introduction of diseases and parasites are given. Economic damage to agricultural crops, to fruit-growing, viniculture, forestry, parks and to inshore waters is outlined. Bird species mentioned include the ring-necked parakeet Psittacula krameri, Canada goose Branta canadensis, swan goose Anser cygnoides, pheasant Phasianus colchicus. Mammal species covered include the muskrat Ondatra zibethicus, nutria Myocastor coypus, rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, raccoon Procyon lotor, raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides, mouflon Ovis musimon, fallow deer Dama dama and sika deer Cervus nippon.

Harald Gebhardt "Ecological and economic consequences of introductions of exotic wildlife (birds and mammals) in Germany," Wildlife Biology 2(3), 205-211, (1 September 1996).
Published: 1 September 1996

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