The continuation of studies on Phragmites frutescens in Crete revealed its taxonomic distinctness and fairly wide distribution in Crete as well as in Greece in general. A revised morphological description and differentiation against P. australis and P. mauritianus are presented. As a result, the synonymisation of this tall, woody, branched, winter-flowering reed with P. australis is rejected. Its preferred habitats are described as being near permanent water. It is considered to have evolved in isolation from the tropical P. mauritianus after post-glacial desertification of northern Africa. By now most stands of P. frutescens have been heavily devastated by anthropogenic action.
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