The genera and species of the subtribe Hypochaeridinae occurring in the Arabian Peninsula are studied and data on their taxonomy and distribution given. Six genera have been recorded. Picris is represented by four species, i.e. P. babylonica, P. cyanocarpa, P. longirostris and P. scabra (with two subspecies), the other genera are represented by one species each, i.e. Hedypnois cretica, Hypochaeris glabra, Leontodon laciniatus, Rhagadiolus stellatus and Urospermum picroides. The subtribe is absent from the Socotra archipelago. The new combination Picris scabra subsp. abyssinica is validated and a neotype designated for P. scabra. Chromosome counts are reported for Yemeni origins of Picris scabra subsp. abyssinica (2n = 10), subsp. scabra (2n = 10, first report) and Urospermum picroides (2n = 10).
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