The monophyletic genus Pedersenia comprises eleven species in the Neotropics, one of which, P. volubilis, is here described as new to science, being an endemic of mixed semi-deciduous Bolivian-Tucuman Interandean lower subhumid forest at mid elevations of the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Among the liana species of Pedersenia, it differs by twining stems, synflorescences constituted by terminal stems of several metres and small, lanceolate leaves. It is also characterised by two synapomorphic substitutions in the matK CDS. Sequence data of trnK/matK show considerable divergence between morphologically very similar liana species of tropical evergreen broad-leaved forests from different geographical regions. The phylogeny suggests the only self-sustaining tree-like species from the dry inter-Andean valleys to be derived from lianas. Allopatric speciation fostered by the ecological and geographical differentiation of the forest communities may have led to morphologically cryptic species, underscoring the need for an integrated morpho-molecular revision of the genus Pedersenia.
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Vol. 41 • No. 1