The recently described Linderniaceae are a monophyletic group that emerged in the course of the disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae in the last years. First molecular studies sampled only a small fraction of the genera assigned to the Linderniaceae, but later Lindernia was shown to be non-monophyletic. Here we used a plastid trnK/matK sequence dataset to get further insights into the relationships within Linderniaceae. The genus Lindernia as accepted to date is shown to be polyphyletic. Stemodiopsis is found to be sister to the remaining Linderniaceae, and the genera Psammetes and Bryodes are found to be nested in a Lindernia s.str. clade. We present a taxonomic framework, taking account of the phylogenetic relationships in the family, and a first key to the genera. The genera Bonnaya and Vandellia are resurrected and a new genus Linderniella is described. The following eight replacement names are proposed: Craterostigma engleri, C. tanzanicum, Lindernia benthamii, L. lemuriana, Linderniella pusilla, Torenia bonatii, T. davidii and T. philcoxii. Seventy-seven new combinations are made in Bonnaya, Craterostigma, Lindernia, Linderniella, Micranthemum, Torenia and Vandellia.
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