Foretarsal ventral surface observation of Japanese Papilio butterflies showed that the shapes of fifth foretarsi and numbers and localization of contact chemosensilla and spines in these areas are closely related to both phylogeny and behavior in these species. My results basically supported the classification that Japanese Papilio divides into five subgenera – Papilio (Princeps), P. machaon (P. xuthus and P. demoleus), Achillides (P. maackii and P. bianor), Menelaides (P. helenus, P. polytes, P. protenor and P. macilentus) and Iliades (P. memnon). Moreover, female foretarsal morphology also corresponded to the physical features of their preferring host plant leaves. The specificity of female P. machaon, female P. macilentus and female P. maackii seemed to also relate to the geographical diversities of these species and their hostplant, and their co-evolution.
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