Biogeographic studies are important for understanding the natural history of faunas. To comprehend the geographical patterns of genetic variation in anurans in Taiwan, we investigated the genetic structure of Sylvirana latouchii (Anura, Ranidae) from 31 populations by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequences. A neighbor-joining tree of 38 haplotypes revealed three major divergences in Taiwanese S. latouchii: the northern, western, and eastern-and-southern clades. Each clade was restricted to a single geographical district and showed obvious differentiation. The patterns of geographical divergence in this species reflect common historical events experienced by other native animals distributed in Taiwan. The order of divergence times between clades was inferred using a molecular clock test. The population relationship of S. latouchii between Taiwan and mainland China is discussed. Further study employing more populations of S. latouchii from mainland China is necessary to clarify the original geographical patterns and migratory history of this species.
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