The present study was conducted to elucidate the genetic divergence and the phylogenetic relationships in the F. limnocharis complex from Bangladesh and other Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan and Japan by allozyme analyses. We used a total of 95 frogs of the F. limnocharis complex from these countries and F. cancrivora from the Philippines as an outgroup. Based on body size, the F. limnocharis complex from Bangladesh was divided into three distinct groups: large, medium and small types. Allozyme analyses were carried out with 28 loci encoding 20 enzymes and two blood proteins by horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis. When Nei's (1972) genetic distance was calculated, distinct divergence was found among the three types: mean genetic distance was 0.782 between the small and medium types, 1.458 between the large and medium types, and 1.520 between the large and small types. Phylogenetic trees based on genetic distance showed that all populations of Bangladesh small type strongly formed a cluster and were found to be most closely related to the Sri Lanka population; that all populations of Bangladesh large type formed a very strong cluster and were grouped with several populations from Thailand, Malaysia, Japan, and Taiwan; and that the medium type was segregated from all other groups. This may imply that each of the three types is a different species, and that the medium type is possibly an undescribed taxon.
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