We examined the geographic distributions and phylogenetic relationships of bisexual and unisexual (parthenogenetic) forms of the weevil Scepticus insularis on Hokkaido Island, northern Japan. Unisexual beetles were widespread throughout Hokkaido, whereas bisexuals were found only in three remote areas. Bisexuals (females and males) and unisexual females occurred sympatrically in two areas. We determined nucleotide sequences for part of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2; 633 bp) gene for 104 individuals, and for part of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2; 360 bp) for 91 individuals. In an ND2 gene tree, haplotypes of S. insularis fell into two distinct clades (A and B), which were genetically differentiated from one another by 9.1% nucleotide sequence divergence. Haplotypes of females identified as unisexual were all in clade A, whereas those of females identified as bisexual belonged to clade B. Haplotypes of males were in clade B, except for two males having a clade-A haplotype. Circumstantial evidence suggests that these two males were produced by unisexual females. The ND2 tree suggests that the current unisexual form of S. insularis on Hokkaido was of a single origin. In contrast, a gene tree for ITS2 haplotypes show no clear divergence between the two modes of reproduction, with two major haplotypes shared by unisexual females, bisexual females, and males. This incongruence between the nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies may be attributable to occasional gene flow between the unisexual and bisexual lineages through males occasionally produced by unisexual females, but our results do not exclude the possibility that the two lineages share polymorphic ancestral ITS2 haplotypes.
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