Translator Disclaimer
1 March 2015 Interactions of Selected Species of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from Leguminous Crops with Plants in the Neotropics
Lisonéia F. Smaniotto, Antônio R. Panizzi
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Herein we discuss the interactions of selected species of phytophagous stink bug observed on leguminous (Fabaceae) crops in the Neotropics (Neotropical Region) with their associated plants. We included the following pentatomid species: Nezara viridula (L.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Euschistus heros (F.), Edessa meditabunda (F.), Dichelops furcatus (F.), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), and Thyanta perditor (F.). Based on a literature review, a list of plants on which these stink bug species were intercepted is included, indicating the reproductive hosts, i.e., plants on which bug can complete development, and incidental records, i.e., plants on which bugs are found occasionally. The change in feeding habits (from fruits/seeds of preferred host plants) to less preferred vegetative structures (stems/leaves of less preferred associated plants) for feeding or shelter, due to change in the landscape by intense multiple cropping and no-tillage cultivation systems is discussed.

The utilization of host plants depends on several factors such as the variable chemical profile of plants (e.g., primary and secondary metabolites), plant architecture or plant design, and plant availability in time and space (Ehrlich & Raven 1964; Strong et al. 1984). The efficiency of the insect at intercepting the host plant depends on its own ability to do so (e.g., dispersal capability - Bernays & Chapman 1994), and the physical and chemical traits of the plant (Chew & Renwick 1995; Bittencourt-Rodrigues & Zucoloto 2005). Contact with the host plant by the insect may have short term effects (e.g., behavioral changes) and long term effects (e.g., impact on fitness) (Ahmad 1983).

The majority of insects exploit plants from one family, being associated with one or a few genera (Winkler & Mitter 2008), and specific structures on those plants (Bernays 1998). Pest stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are, in general, of economic importance due to their impact on plants cultivated for food, fiber or ornamental use (Panizzi et al. 2000a; McPherson & McPherson 2000). They may feed on plant species of several families and show morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations that allow them to better exploit the host plants (Karban & Agrawal 2002; Després et al. 2007). As an example, the highly polyphagous southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L.) changed its typical feeding habits of utilizing reproductive structures (i.e., seeds or fruits) of preferred food plants to feed on leaf veins of less preferred food plants, such as castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae) (Panizzi 2000). It also may eventually feed on corn seedlings (Negron & Riley 1987). This may have a variable impact on the nymphal development and adult reproduction, as has been demonstrated with various species of heteropterans (see references in Panizzi 1997). Nezara viridula feeds on an array of plants from different families (Todd 1989; Panizzi 1997).

In this review article, we discuss the interactions among selected species of pentatomids found on legume (Fabaceae) crops in the neotropics and the plants with which they have been associated. For each of the selected species of stink bugs, we list the associated plants documented in the literature from the neotropics, especially from Brazil. As much as possible, we highlight those reproductive hosts, i.e., plants on which bug can complete development, and incidental records, i.e., plants on which bugs are found only occasionally. Finally, we discuss the impact of the intense multiple cropping and the no-tillage cultivation systems upon these interactions. Note: the common names utilized for the stink bugs species discussed are those commonly used in Brazil.

Plants and Feeding of Stink Bugs

NEZARA VIRIDULA (L.)

The southern green stink bug N. viridula has a worldwide distribution, including Africa, Americas, Asia and Europe (Lethlerry & Severin 1893; Todd 1989; Kaul et al. 2007). In Brazil, it has been reported from the south and central-west regions (Panizzi & Slansky Jr. 1985a; Panizzi & Corrêa-Ferreira 1997) and, more recently, from the Northeast Region (Panizzi 2002). This is most likely due to the expansion of its suitable host plant, soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill (Fabaceae), toward the north. Eventually, N. viridula will probably be distributed throughout the country, except perhaps for the Amazon Basin. It also occurs in several other countries of the neotropics, such as Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Uruguay (Table 1).

Despite the preference of N. viridula for legumes and brassicas (Todd 1989), its extreme polyphagy makes it adapted to feed on an array of plants. These include several species of cultivated and noncultivated plants, weeds, fruit trees, and ornamentals. In Table 1, we have listed all the plants on which N. viridula has been recorded feeding and/or reproducing or utilizing as shelter, or as a source of water in the neotropics.

In general, N. viridula in the neotropics completes six generations/year. For example, in Paraná, Brazil, Londrina County (S 23° -W 50°) it completes three generations on the soybean crop during spring and summer months. It then moves to weed plants such as Desmodium tortuosum (SW.) DC. (Fabaceae), wild radish Raphanus raphanistrum L., wild mustard Brassica campestris, L. (Brassicaceae), and pigeon pea Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.) (Fabaceae), where it completes two additional generations, during fall and early winter. One more (sixth) generation is completed on the wild weed Leonurus sibiricus L. (Lamiaceae), before colonizing soybean again in the next spring (Panizzi 1997). In addition to these plants, N. viridula has been observed feeding on seed heads of wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae), during late winter and early spring (A. R. Panizzi, personal observation).

The list of plants on which N. viridula has been recorded in the neotropics includes 70 plant species belonging to 19 families, from which 29 species were considered to be reproductive hosts, i.e., plants on which bug can complete development (Table 1).

PIEZODORUS GUILDINII (WESTWOOD)

The small-green stink bug, P. guildinii, has a wide Neotropical distribution (Panizzi & Slansky 1985a; Ribeiro et al. 2009; Zerbino 2007, 2009, 2010). It has existed in Florida for many years without being much of a pest (Kirkaldy 1909; Genung et al. 1964). Recently, it has become a major pest of soybean in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas (McPherson & McPherson 2000; Bauer & Baldwin 2006; Kamminga et al. 2012).

Compared to N. viridula, P. guildinii feeds on fewer plant species, being confined mostly to legumes (Fabaceae) (Panizzi & Slansky 1985b; Panizzi & Parra 2012). Among the legumes, plants of the genus Indigofera seem to be preferred (Panizzi 1992). However, other species of cultivated and non-cultivated plants of different families are at various times used by this pentatomid, either as a source of nutrients or water, or as shelter (Table 2).

Table 1.

Cultivated and non-cultivated plants associated with Nezara viridula (L.) in the neotropics. Numbers in parentheses indicate references and localities given at the end of the table.

t01a_07.gif

Continued

t01b_07.gif

In the northern state of Paraná, Brazil, in Londrina County, it completes three generations on soybean during the spring and summer months; then it moves to other legume plants such as lanceleaf crotalaria, Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey, and pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.) (Fabaceae), completing another generation. During the mild winter in this area it moves to indigo legume plants completing a fifth generation, before returning to soybean the following spring (Panizzi 1997).

In cooler areas of the south (e.g., Rio Grande do Sul) it is found on alternate plants such as chickling pea, Vicia sativa L. (Fabaceae), wild radish, Raphanus sativus L. (Brassicaceae) , and white lupin, Lupinus albus L. (Fabaceae) (Silva et al. 2006). Further south in Uruguay, in addition to reproducing on soybean, at least two generations occur on cultivated forage legumes (Medkago sativa L., Trifolium pratense L., Lotus corniculatus L. - Fabaceae) during the spring and summer. Other associated plants include Pittosporum undulatum Ventenat (Pittosporaceae), Ligustrum lucidum Aiton (Oleaceae), and Phyllostachys sp. (Poaceae) on which they do not reproduce but seek shelter and may eventually feed. Adults are found underneath eucalyptus litter during autumn and winter, peaking in July (Zerbino et al. 2015).

Table 2.

Cultivated and non-cultivated plants associated with Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) in the neotropics. Numbers in parentheses indicate references and localities given at the end of the table.

t02a_07.gif

Continued.

t02b_07.gif

The list of plants on which P. guildinii has been recorded in the neotropics includes 49 plant species belonging to 22 families, of which 24 species were considered to be reproductive hosts (Table 2).

EUSCHISTUS HEROS (F.)

The Neotropical brown stink bug E. heros was considered uncommon in the neotropics until the 1970's (Williams et al. 1973; Panizzi et al. 1977). Today it is the most abundant stink bug pest of major commodities in Brazil, feeding on Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Brassicaceae and Compositae (references in Panizzi et al. 2000a). More recently, it has been recorded feeding on Malvaceae (cotton), and is becoming wide spread on this plant in central-west Brazil (Soria et al. 2010).

Despite its polyphagy, the number of recorded host plants is smaller than recorded for the former two species (Table 3). This might be explained because of the habit of E. heros to overwinter under dead leaves (Panizzi & Niva 1994). It may stay on the ground for up to six months during the fall-winter and the beginning of spring in partial dormancy without feeding (Panizzi & Vivan 1997).

E. heros historically completed four generations per year in northern Paraná State, Brazil (Panizzi 1997). However, two main factors favored its biology, adding additional generations and increasing its numbers: the widespread adoption of the no-tillage cultivation systems, and the introduction of multiple cropping. These allowed the species to expand in the Brazilian territory and into Argentina (Saluso et al. 2011).

Table 3.

Cultivated and non-cultivated plants associated with Euschistus heros (F.) in the neotropics. Numbers in parentheses indicate references and localities given at the end of the table.

t03_07.gif

In the southern-most state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) in Brazil E. heros is now the most abundant species of pentatomid on soybean, reaching over 80% of the total number of stink bugs collected in Passo Fundo, RS, latitude S 28° 15′ 46″ (A. R. Panizzi, unpublished). A survey in the state indicated its presence on Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae), Solanum megalochiton Mart., S. mauritianum Scop., and Vassobia breviflora (Sendtn.) Hunz. (Solanaceae) (Medeiros & Megier 2009). Elsewhere, it has begun feeding on seedlings of soybean (Corrêa-Ferreira et al. 2010b) and corn (Rosa-Gomes 2010).

The list of plants on where E. heros has been recorded in the neotropics includes 21 plant species belonging to 11 families, from which 6 species were considered to be reproductive hosts (Table 3).

EDESSA MEDITABUNDA (F.)

The brown-winged stink bug E. meditabunda is a Neotropical pentatomid found in Argentina, in several states of Brazil, in Paraguay, in Uruguay, and in several islands of the Caribbean (see distribution map in Panizzi 2014). It is reported as a pest of many species of Solanaceae (e.g., tomato, potato), and Fabaceae (peas, soybean, alfalfa); it may also be a pest on cotton, eggplant, tobacco, sunflower, papaya, and grapes (Silva et al. 1968; Rizzo 1976; Lopes et al. 1974).

Beginning in the 1970's, this species was reported as occurring in and damaging soybeans in Brazil (Costa & Link 1974; Galileo et al. 1977). These early studies seemed to indicate that this species had a minor impact on soybean yield; however, it was later demonstrated that it can cause significant damage to seed quality, reducing the potential of seed germination (Silva et al. 2012). Edessa meditabunda is also known to colonize sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), in several areas in Paraná state, feeding on the stems and seed heads (Panizzi & Machado-Neto 1992; Malaguido & Panizzi 1998; Frota & Santos 2007).

In general, phytophagous stink bugs prefer to feed on the reproductive structures (seeds/fruits) of their hosts. Edessa meditabunda is also known to commonly feed on alternate vegetative plant tissues, such as soybean and sunflower stems, and potato and tomato growing tips (references in Panizzi et al. 2000a). Recently, this bug has been reported feeding on leaves of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., and chicory, Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) in the central-western and northern states of Brazil (Krinski et al. 2012; Krinski & Pelissari 2012; Krinski 2013). It is also commonly found feeding on vegetative alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae) in southern Brazil (L. F. Smaniotto, unpublished).

The list of plants with which E. meditabunda was reportedly associated in the neotropics includes 40 plant species within 13 families, from which 19 species were ranked as reproductive hosts (Table 4).

DICHELOPS FURCATUS (F.)

Dichelops furcatus, known as the green-belly stink bug, occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay (Grazia 1978). Apparently, it is more common in areas with lower temperatures. For example, in Brazil it is recorded more often in the cooler southern states of Rio Gande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and Paraná (Lopes et al. 1974; Grazia 1978; Chocorosqui 2001; Chiaradia et al. 2011).

Dichelops furcatus has been reported as a pest of soybean for some time (Rizzo 1976; Panizzi et al. 1977). More recently, it has become a pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and common oat, Avena sativa L. (Poaceae) (Pereira et al. 2010), reducing seed germination (Rosa-Gomes 2010); on another Poaceae (corn, Zea mays L.) it causes the plant to wilt, and eventually the young plants may die (Chocorosqui 2001). The increase in its abundance has been attributed to the adoption of no-tillage cultivation systems in southern Brazil, where the bug is found underneath crop residues during colder months. As temperatures rise, it moves out to feed on wheat; it may feed subsequently on seedlings of soybean and of corn, increasing its abundance during the pod development of soybean (A. R. Panizzi, unpublished).

In Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, D. furcatus has been reported feeding on sunflower heads (Frota & Santos 2007). In this area it may be found on trees such as Buddleja thyrsoides Lam. (Scrophulariaceae), Myrciaria tenella (D. C.) Berg (Myrtaceae) (Costa et al. 1995), Eugenia uniflora Berg. (Myrtaceae), Gochnatia polymorpha Less. (Asteraceae), Miconea cinerascens Miq. (Melastomataceae) (Gariet et al. 2010), and on Prunus myrtifolia (L.) Urb. (Rosaceae) (L. F. Smaniotto, unpublished).

The list of plants on which D. furcatus has been recorded in the neotropics includes 32 plant species belonging to 13 families, from which 7 species were considered to be reproductive hosts (Table 5).

Table 4.

Cultivated and non-cultivated plants associated with Edessa meditabunda (F.) in the neotropics. Numbers in parentheses indicate references and localities given at the end of the table.

t04_07.gif

Table 5.

Cultivated and non-cultivated plants associated with Dichelops furcatus (F.) in the neotropics. Numbers in parentheses indicate references and localities given at the end of the table.

t05_07.gif

DICHELOPS MELACANTHUS (DALLAS)

A second species of stink bug, also known as the green-belly stink bug, D. melacanthus has a wider distribution in the neotropics compared to the former species. It occurs in at least 13 Brazilian states; it is also found in Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela (Grazia 1978; see distribution map in Panizzi 2014).

The majority of the population is concentrated on field crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) and it stays in the field during the off season underneath crop residues (Chocorosqui 2001). Since its first report on corn in Mato Grosso do Sul (Ávila & Panizzi 1995), D. melacanthus has become widespread on this crop, particularly in the central-west and southern states of Brazil. On soybean, nymphs and adults are found mostly during the crop's reproductive period (Silva et al. 2013). On wheat, and on other winter cereals, nymphs and adults are found on the soil, feeding on fallen soybean seeds of the previous crop, and then feeding on stems of seedlings of these cereals (Pereira et al. 2010).

In northern Paraná, Brazil, nymphs and adults of D. melacanthus feed and reproduce on the weed lanceleaf crotalaria, Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey (Fabaceae), and adults peak in July (Silva et al. 2013). Although there is high mortality of nymphs on pods of lanceleaf crotalaria (> 70%) (Chocorosqui & Panizzi 2008), this seems to be an important alternate food plant for D. melacanthus in this area since it is widespread.

Another important weed that is used by D. melacanthus is the tropical spiderwort Commelina benghalensis L. (Commelinaceae), on which nymphs and adults are commonly found in Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul (Carvalho 2007; Silva et al. 2013). Chocorosqui (2001) tried to raise nymphs in the laboratory on seedlings of the tropical spiderwort, but no nymphs completed development. The same was observed when seedlings of corn, soybean or wheat were tested; on soybean and wheat seeds they complete development, but on seeds of corn they do not (L. F. Smaniotto, unpublished); no attempts were made to raise nymphs on tropical spiderwort seeds.

The list of plants on which D. melacanthus has been recorded in the neotropics includes 29 species belonging to 10 plant families, from which 5 species were considered to be reproductive hosts (Table 6).

THYANTA PERDITOR (F.)

This Neotropical pentatomid occurs in several countries of South America, West Indies, Mexico, and U.S.A. (Florida, Texas, and Arizona) (references in Panizzi et al. 2000a). It has been frequently reported as a pest of soybean in Colombia (Waldbauer 1977) and Trinidad (Fennah 1935).

In Brazil, T. perditor has been referred to as a minor pest of soybean in several states (Rosseto et al. 1978; Kishino 1980; Panizzi & Herzog 1984). Also, it has frequently been associated with Gramineae (= Poaceae) such as sorghum, rice and wheat in several states (Rosseto et al. 1978; Panizzi & Herzog 1984; Ferreira & Silveira 1991; Amaral-Filho et al. 1992).

Perez et al. (1980) provided data on the nymph and adult biology of T. perditor on wheat. Laboratory and greenhouse studies, however, suggested that soybean and wheat were not suitable hosts for nymphal development and reproduction of T. perditor; in contrast, on the weed plant Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), nymphs developed well and adults reproduced (Panizzi & Flerzog 1984). Despite the damage of this bug to wheat seed yield and quality (Ferreira & Silveira 1991), and to its occurrence on soybean fields, apparently these two plant species only provide some nutrients, whereas T. perditor populations are in fact reproducing on the weed B. pilosa.

In northern Paraná, Brazil, T. perditor is commonly found feeding on sunflower, but no reproduction on this plant has been recorded (Malaguido & Panizzi 1998). Recently (2013) it was observed feeding on seed heads of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (Poaceae) in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil (L. F. Smaniotto, unpublished).

The list of plants on which T. perditor has been recorded in the neotropics includes 15 plant species belonging to 8 families, of which 3 species were considered to be reproductive hosts (Table 7).

Table 6.

Cultivated and non-cultivated plants associated with Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) in the neotropics. Numbers in parentheses indicate references and localities given at the end of the table.

t06_07.gif

Discussion

Results of this literature survey indicate that the selected species of stink bugs (pentatomids) found on leguminous crops (Fabaceae) in the neotropics use an array of plants, on which they may or may not reproduce. The cosmopolitan southern green stink bug, N. viridula is by far the most polyphagous species (Fig. 1A,B) with 70 spp. of plants recorded from 19 families, but they reproduce on only 41% of them (Fig. 1 C). These reproductive hosts are, except in three cases, leguminous or brassicaceous plants. This means that on most plants on which they are found, they are there looking for nutrients or water, or seeking shelter. This occurs more often during periods when the preferred hosts are unavailable in time or space, or both.

Table 7.

Cultivated and non-cultivated plants associated with Thyanta perditor (F.) in the neotropics. Numbers in parentheses indicate references and localities given at the end of the table.

t07_07.gif

The abundance of N. viridula in Brazil and in other countries of South America (e.g., Argentina) apparently has been decreasing in the last five years, mostly on the soybean crop (Kuss-Roggia 2009; Corrêa-Ferreira et al. 2010a; R. Vicentini, INTA, personal communication). This might be due to the action of the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston), which occurs in natural areas and has been artificially spread into soybean fields (Corrêa-Ferreira & Moscardi 1995; Medeiros et al. 1998; Liljesthröm et al. 2013). Also, global warming may affect N. viridula abundance and distribution (Musolin & Numata 2003). In addition, the widespread use of herbicides on major commodities in the neotropics has eliminated weeds that are potential hosts of the southern green stink bug, and this might have impacted the populations. Finally, the cropping systems using no-tillage cultivation favor species that are able to spend part of their lifetime on the ground, such as E. heros, which generates interspecific competition detrimental to N. viridula.

The small-green stink bug, P. guildinii, was the second most polyphagous species. Similar to N. viridula, from the 49 plants of 22 families, only 49% of those were recorded as reproductive hosts (Fig. 1 A,B,C). Among the reproductive hosts, the majority (21 out of 24 plants) were legumes. Therefore, is not surprising that all records estimating number of generations of P. guildinii, such as in Paraná (Panizzi 1997) and Rio Grande do Sul (Silva et al. 2006) in Brazil, and in Uruguay (Zerbino et al. 2015) are completed on legumes. Other species on the same genus, such as P. hybneri Gmelin in the Oriental Region and P. lituratus (F.) in the Paleartic Region are also mostly associated with legumes (references in Panizzi et al 2000a).

The Neotropical brown stink bug, E. heros, much less polyphagous than the former two species, reproduces on only 29% of the 21 plants species from 11 families on which they were recorded (Fig. 1A, B, C). Perhaps, the main reason for that is the fact that this species is greatly restricted to legumes as reproductive hosts, mostly soybean, and the majority of incidental records are plants grown nearby soybean fields from which they disperse as the crops mature. At the end of the soybean season, and with a drop in temperatures in many places in Brazil they are found seeking shelter not only in trees, but in human constructions as well (A.R. Panizzi personal observation).

Fig. 1.

Total records of plants associated with different species of stink bugs pests of legumes (Fabaceae) in the neotropics based on literature review. The dark line links the different values as follows: (A) = number of plant species on where each stink bug species was observed; (B) = number of plant families on where each species of stink bug was observed; and (C) = number of reproductive hosts (plants on which bug can complete development) on where each species of stink bug was observed. Note that the area for total plant species in (A) is much greater that the one for reproductive hosts in (C), indicating that on the majority of the plants the bugs are observed they do not reproduce. NV = Nezara viridula; PG = Piezodorus guildinii; EH = Euschistus heros; EM = Edessa meditabunda; DF = Dichelops furcatus; DM = Dichelops melacanthus; and TP = Thyanta perditor.

f01_07.jpg

The brown-winged stink bug, E. meditabunda, which feeds and reproduces mostly on leguminous and solanaceous plants (ca. 80% of the reproductive hosts), was found to reproduce on about half of the plants recorded (Fig. 1 C). Apparently this species is greatly adapted to feed and reproduce on vegetative plant tissues of several hosts, compared to the other species of pentatomids analyzed. There has been some speculation about that feeding habit, which might be related to their shorter mouthparts (Panizzi & Machado-Neto 1992) that prevent reaching seeds inside the fruits. Also, their habit of feeding in the upside down position on plant stems has also been speculated to increase sap uptake, but this has never been proven to be true.

Dichelops furcatus and D. melacanthus, along with T. perditor were the species with the lower values for reproductive hosts considering the total records of associated plants (22, 17 and 20%, respectively, Fig. 1C). The first two species are most commonly associated with legumes (D. furcatus also with brassicaceous plants), while the last species does not have a clear host preference. Although there are various records of the occurrence of T. perditor on poaceous plants, it apparently does not reproduce on the majority of them.

The impact of the intense multiple cropping and the no-tillage cultivation systems in the neotropics upon the interactions of these species of stink bugs with their associated plants has been dramatic. First, the introduction of crops all year round, particularly in the savannahs of central-west Brazil, and, to a less degree, in other regions of the country, has provided bugs with a never ending source of food. Second, the no-tillage cultivation system that has been adopted by growers provides bugs with shelter (i.e., crop residues year round) and food (fallen seeds from the previous crop). These two factors, plus the appearance of weeds in abundance in these intense cropping systems has favored species that have the habit of overwintering on the soil surface underneath debris, such as E. heros, D. furcatus and D. melacanthus.

Concluding Remarks

There are several definitions of host plant, and its concept includes a plant on which the insect feeds, reproduces and shelters (see Bernays & Chapman 1994). In most cases, these three features - feedreproduce-shelter - do not occur simultaneously, hence the difficulty to fully characterize a plant as host. In certain instances adults will feed and seek shelter on plant A but nymphs will not develop on plant A; in other cases, nymphs will feed and develop on plant B, but emerging adults will not lay eggs on plant B; and finally nymphs and adult may feed on plant C, females lay eggs, but adults soon abandon plant C because it offers no shelter (greater exposure to abiotic factors — rain, sunlight — or to biotic factors — predators/parasites). In all cases there is a cost/benefit and the ideal host plant, the one to fulfill the three features, is seldom encountered by pentatomids.

The long lists of plants mentioned in this paper are those on which the stink bugs were observed. Most of them cannot be ranked as a host plant, considering host plant the one that fulfills the requirements of feed-reproduce-shelter, hence, the term used associated plants. Therefore, always when observing a stink bug on a plant, laboratory studies coupled with field observations should be conducted, for one to be able to characterize it as a host plant or not.

The introduction of multiple cropping and no-tillage cultivation systems previously discussed are perhaps the two main factors driving the increase in numbers of stink bugs pests of major commodities in the neotropics. The multiple interactions of stink bugs with their associated plants is therefore a dynamic ongoing process that stands as a challenge to our understanding of the biological processes in nature.

Acknowledgements

This paper is part of the qualifying requirements for LFS to attain her Doctor of Science (Entomology) degree at the Federal University of Paraná at Curitiba, Brazil. She was supported by a scholarship from CAPES (Ministry of Education) of Brazil. We thank Tiago Lucini for help in editing the figure, and three anonymous reviewers for criticism. Approved for publication by the Publication Committee of the Embrapa Wheat, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil.

References Cited

1.

S. Ahmad 1983. Herbivorous Insects: Host-Seeking Behavior and Mechanisms. Academic Press, New York, USA. 257 pp. Google Scholar

2.

FA Albuquerque , FC Pattaro , LM Borges , RS Lima , AV. Zabini 2002. Insetos associados à cultura da aceroleira (Malpighia glabra L.) na região de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Acta Scientiarum 24: 1245–1249. Google Scholar

3.

BF Amaral-Filho , CC Lima , CMR Silva , FL. Consoli 1992. Influência de temperatura no estágio de ovo e adulto de Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794) (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 21: 15–20. Google Scholar

4.

BC Aranda , TA. Granovsky 1971. Introducción al conocimiento de las plagas agrícolas em el Paraguay. Revista Peruviana de Entomologia 4: 397–398. Google Scholar

5.

CJ Ávila , AR. Panizzi 1995. Occurrence and damage by Dichelops (Neodichelops) melacanthus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on corn. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 24: 193–194. Google Scholar

6.

ME Baur , J. Baldwin 2006. Redbanded stink bug trouble in Louisiana. Lousiana Agriculture 49: 9–10 Google Scholar

7.

EA. Bernays 1998. Evolution of feeding behavior in insect herbivores. Bloscience 48: 35–44. Google Scholar

8.

EA Bernays , RF. Chapman 1994. Host-Plant Selection by Phytophagous Insects. Chapman & Hall, New York, USA. 312 pp. Google Scholar

9.

R. Blanco 2005. O percevejo barriga-verde no milho e no trigo em plantio direto. Revista Plantio Direto 89: 46–51. Google Scholar

10.

R Bianco , M. Nishimura 1998. Efeito de tratamento de sementes de milho no controle do percevejo barriga verde (Dichelops furcatus), pp. 203 In XVII Congresso Brasileiro de Entomologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Google Scholar

11.

RS Bittencourt-Rodrigues , FS. Zucoloto 2005. Effect of host age on the oviposition and performance of Ascia monuste Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Neotropical Entomology 34: 169–175. Google Scholar

12.

R. Boada 2005. Insects associated with endangered plants in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Entomotropica 20: 77–88. Google Scholar

13.

RAM. Caceres 2004. Recopilacion de antecedentes de biologia y daño de las principales plagas de artropodos que afectan a los cultivos anuales mas importantes em Chile. Chile University, Chile, 236 pp. Google Scholar

14.

ESM. Carvalho 2007. Dichelops melacanthus no sistema plantio direto ao longo do ano: Dinâmica populacional e parasitismo nas presenças de plantas daninhas, palha, cultura de soja, milho e trigo e de plantas voluntárias de milho. M.Sc. Dissertation. Federal University Grande Dourados, Brazil, 57 pp. Google Scholar

15.

FS Chew , JAA. Renwick 1995. Host plant choice in Pieris butterflies, pp. 214–238 In RT Carde , WJ. Bell [eds.] Chemical ecology of Insects. Chapman & Hall, New York, USA, 433 pp. Google Scholar

16.

LA Chiaradia , A Rebonatto , MA Smaniotto , MRF Davila , CN. Nesi 2011. Artropodofauna associada às lavouras de soja. Revista Ciência Agroveterinária 10: 29–36. Google Scholar

17.

VR. Chocorosqui 2001. Biecologia de espécies de Dichelops (Diceraeus) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) e danos em soja, milho e trigo no Norte do Paraná. Ph.D. Thesis, Federal University of Paraná, Brazil, 160 pp. Google Scholar

18.

VR Chocorosqui , AR. Panizzi 2008. Nymphs and adults of Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on cultivated and noncultivated host plants. Neotropical Entomology 37: 353–360. Google Scholar

19.

BS Corrêa-Ferrelra , D Lima , FC. Krzyzanowski 2010a. Ocorrência e dano de percevejos em cultivares de soja de crescimento determinado e Indeterminado. Anais da Reunião de Pesquisa de Soja da Região Central do Brasil, Brasília 1: 78–80. Google Scholar

20.

BS Corrêa-Ferrelra , EM Machado , CB. Hoffmann-Campo 2010b. Sobrevivência e desempenho reprodutivo do percevejo marrom Euschistus heros (F.) na entressafra da soja. Anais da Reunião de Pesquisa de Soja da Região Central do Brasil, Brasília 1: 81–83. Google Scholar

21.

BS Corrêa-Ferrelra , F. Moscardi 1995. Seasonal occurrence and host spectrum of egg parasitoids associated with soybean stink bugs. Biological Control 5: 196–202. Google Scholar

22.

EC Costa , PC Bogorni , VH. Bellomo 1995. Percevejos coletados em copas de diferentes espécies florestais. Pentatomidae-1. Revista. Ciência Florestal 5: 123–128. Google Scholar

23.

EC Costa , D. Link 1974. Incidência de percevejos em soja. Revista do. Centro de Ciências Rurais 4: 397–400. Google Scholar

24.

L Després , JP David , C. Gallet 2007. The evolutionary ecology of insect resistance to plant chemicals. Trends Ecology and Evolution 22: 298–307. Google Scholar

25.

PR Ehrlich , PH. Raven 1964. Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evolution. 18: 586–608. Google Scholar

26.

RG. Fennah 1935. A preliminary list of the Pentatomidae of Trinidad, B.W.I. Tropical Agriculture 12: 192–194. Google Scholar

27.

BSC Ferreira , AR. Panizzi 1982. Percevejos pragas da soja no Norte do Paraná: abundância em relação à fenologia da planta e hospedeiros intermediários. Anais do Seminário Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja, Londrina 1: 140–151. Google Scholar

28.

E Ferreira , PM da. Silveira 1991. Dano de Thyanta perditor (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) em trigo (Triticum aestivum L.). Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 20: 165–171. Google Scholar

29.

RT Frota , RSS. Santos 2007. Pentatomídeos associados a cultivos de girassol no Noroeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e ação de Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1791) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) em aquênios. Biotemas 20: 65–71. Google Scholar

30.

MHM Galileo , HAO Gastal , J. Grazia 1977. Levantamento populacional de Pentatomidae (Hemiptera) em cultura de soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill no município de Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 37: 111–120. Google Scholar

31.

TA. Garbelotto 2008. Pentatominae (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) no Sul de Santa Catarina. Extremo Sul Catarinense University, Brazil, 100pp. Google Scholar

32.

J Gariet , M Roman , EC. Costa 2010. Pentatomídeos (Hemiptera) associados a espécies nativas em Itaara, RS, Brasil. Biotemas 23: 91–96. Google Scholar

33.

D. Gassen 2001. As pragas sob plantio direto, pp. 103–120. In Siembra Directa em el Cono Sur. Programa Cooperativo para el Desarrollo Tecnológico Agroalimentarlo y Agroindustrial del Cono Sur. Uruguay, 448 pp. Google Scholar

34.

WG Genung , VE Green Jr , C. Wehlburg 1964. Interrelationship of stink bugs and diseases to Everglades soybean production. Proceedings 24th Annual Meeting Soil Crop Society of Florida 24: 131–137. Google Scholar

35.

V Golin , MS Loiácono , CB Margaría , DA. Aquino 2011. Natural incidence of egg parasitoids of Edessa meditabunda (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Crotalaria spectabilis in Campos Novos dos Parecis, MT, Brazil. Neotropical Entomology 40: 617–618. Google Scholar

36.

AS. Gomez 1998. Controle químico do percevejo Dichelops (Neodichelops) melacanthus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) na cultura do milho safrinha. Comunicado Técnico 44, 5 pp. Google Scholar

37.

VA Gomez , EF Gaona , OR Arias , MB Lopez , OE. Ocampos 2013. Aspectos biológicos de Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) criados com diferentes dietas em condiciones de laboratório. Revista da Sociedade Entomológica da Argentina 72: 27–34. Google Scholar

38.

L Gonçalves , FS Almeida , FM. Mota 2008. Efeitos da temperatura no desenvolvimento e reprodução de Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius, 1794) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Acta Biologica Paranense 37: 111–121. Google Scholar

39.

J. Grazia 1978. Revisão do gênero Dichelops Spinola, 1837 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatomini). Iheringia Série Zoologia 53: 3–119. Google Scholar

40.

KL Kamminga , JA Davis , SP Stock , AR. Richter 2012. First report of a mermithid nematode infecting Piezodorus guildinii and Acrosternum hilare (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the United States. Florida Entomologist 95: 214–217. Google Scholar

41.

R Karban , AA. Agrawal 2002. Herbivore offense. Annual Revue of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 33: 641–664. Google Scholar

42.

V Kaul , AK Tiku , U Shankar , MD. Monobrullah 2007. Green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) recorded as a new pest of olive in India. Journal of. Asia —Pacific Entomology 10: 81–83. Google Scholar

43.

GW. Kirkady 1909. Catalogue of the Hemiptera (Heteroptera), vol. I. Clmicidae. L. Dames Felix Ed., Berlin, 392 pp. Google Scholar

44.

K. Kishino 1980. Estudos sobre percevejos prejudiciais na cultura da soja em Cerrados. Embrapa. Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária dos Cerrados, Brazil, pp 85–127. Google Scholar

45.

D. Krinski 2013. First report of phytophagous stink bug in chicory crop. Revista Ciência Rural 43: 42–44. Google Scholar

46.

D Krinskl , BM Favetti , AR. Butnariu 2012. First record of Edessa meditabunda (F.) on lettuce in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Neotropical Entomology 41: 79–80. Google Scholar

47.

D Krinskl , TD. Pelissari 2012. Occurrence of the stinkbug Edessa meditabunda F. (Pentatomidae) in different cultivars of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae). Journal of Bloscience 28: 654–659. Google Scholar

48.

RCR. Kuss-Roggia 2009. Distribuição espacial e temporal de percevejos da soja e comportamento de Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood, 1837) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) na soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) ao longo do dia. Ph.D. Thesis, Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil, 128 pp. Google Scholar

49.

AML. Lafuente 2004. Determinación del estadio reproductivo de soya [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] más susceptible al ataque de Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood, 1937) Pailón, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 2001/2002. Gabriel Rene Moreno University, Bolivia. Google Scholar

50.

L Lethierry , G. Severin 1893. Catalogue General des Hemipteres. Tomo I. Heteropeteres Pentatomidae. Academie Royale de Belgique, Bruxelles, Belgium. 286 pp. Google Scholar

51.

GG Liljesthröm , MF Cingolani , JE. Rabinovich 2013. The functional and numerical responses of Trissoicus basalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) parasitizing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) eggs in the field. Bulletin of Entomological Research 1: 1–10. Google Scholar

52.

D. Link 1979. Entomofauna da lentilha. Percevejos Pentatomidae (Hemiptera). Revista do Centro de Ciências Rurais 9: 379–385. Google Scholar

53.

D Link , J. Grazia 1987. Pentatomídeos da região central do Rio Grande do Sul. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 16: 115–129. Google Scholar

54.

OJ Lopes , D Link , LV. Basso 1974. Pentatomídeos de Santa Maria — Lista preliminar de plantas hospedeiras. Revista do Centro de Ciências Rurais 4: 317–322. Google Scholar

55.

AB Malaguido , AR. Panizzi 1998. Pentatomofauna associated with sunflower in Northern Paraná State, Brazil. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 27: 473–475. Google Scholar

56.

F Massoni , J. Frana 2005. Si no es en soja las chinches donde están? Información técnica de cultivos de verano, Capana 2005. Miscelánea 104: 100–102. Google Scholar

57.

JE McPherson , RM. McPherson 2000. Stink bugs of economic importance in America North of Mexico. CRC Press, Florida, USA, 253 pp. Google Scholar

58.

MA Medeiros , MS Loiácono , M Borges , FVG. Schimidt 1998. Incidência natural de parasitoides em ovos de percevejos (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) encontrados na soja no Distrito Federal. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 33: 1431–1435. Google Scholar

59.

L Medeiros , GA. Megier 2009. Ocorrência e desempenho de Euschistus heros (F.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) em plantas hospedeiras alternativas no Rio Grande do Sul. Neotropical Entomology 38: 459–463. Google Scholar

60.

MAC Miranda , CJ Rossetto , D Rossetto , NR Braga , HAA Mascarenhas , JPF Teixeira , A. Massariol 1979. Resistência de soja a Nezara viridula e Piezodorus guildinii em condições de campo. Bragantia 38: 181–188. Google Scholar

61.

APM Mourão , AR. Panizzi 2000. Diapausa e diferentes formas sazonais em Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) no Norte do Paraná. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 29: 205–218. Google Scholar

62.

DL Musolin , H. Numata 2003. Timing of diapause induction and its life-history consequences in Nezara viridula: is it costly to expand the distribution range? Ecological Entomology 28: 694–703. Google Scholar

63.

JF Negron , TJ. Riley 1987. Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on corn. Journal of Economic Entomology 80: 666–669. Google Scholar

64.

JJ Olivet , CD Picos , J Villalba , S. Zerbino 2013. Tecnologia de aplicación terrestre para el control de insectos en el cultivo de soja. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola Ambiental 17: 450–455. Google Scholar

65.

AR. Panizzi 1985. Sesbania aculeata: Nova planta hospedeira de Piezodorus guildinii no Paraná. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 20: 1237–1238. Google Scholar

66.

AR. Panizzi 1987. Nutritional ecology of seed-sucking insects of soybean and their management. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 82: 161–175. Google Scholar

67.

AR. Panizzi 1992. Performance of Piezodorus guildinii on four species of Indigofera legumes. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 63: 221–228. Google Scholar

68.

AR. Panizzi 1997. Wild hosts of pentatomids: Ecological significance and role in their pest status on crops. Annual Review of Entomology 42: 99–122. Google Scholar

69.

AR. Panizzi 2000. Suboptimal nutrition and feeding behavior of hemipterans on less preferred plant food sources. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 29: 1–12. Google Scholar

70.

AR. Panizzi 2002. Stink bugs on soybean in Northeastern Brazil and new record on the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Neotropical Entomology 31: 331–332. Google Scholar

71.

AR. Panizzi 2014. Growing problems with stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae): Invasive species into the U.S.A. and Neotropical species that might invade the U.S.A. American Entomologist (submitted). Google Scholar

72.

AR Panizzi , SR Cardoso , VR. Chocorosqui 2002. Nymph and adult performance of the small green stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) on lanceleaf crotala ria and soybean. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 45: 53–58. Google Scholar

73.

AR Panizzi , SR Cardoso , EDM. Oliveira 2000b. Status of pigeonpea as an alternative host of Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a pest of soybean. Florida Entomologist 83: 335–342. Google Scholar

74.

AR Panizzi , BS. Corrêa-Ferreira 1997. Dynamics in the insect fauna adaptation to soybean in the tropics. Trends in Entomology 1: 71–88. Google Scholar

75.

AR Panizzi , BS Corrêa , DL Gazzoni , EB Oliveira , GC Newman , SG. Turnipseed 1977. Insetos da soja no Brasil. Boletim Técnico 1, Londrina, PR, 20 pp. Google Scholar

76.

AR Panizzi , J. Grazia 2001. Stink bugs (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) and a unique host plant in the Brazilian subtropics. Iheringia Série Zoologia 90: 21–35. Google Scholar

77.

AR Panizzi , DC. Herzog 1984. Biology of Thyanta perditor (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 77: 646–650. Google Scholar

78.

AR Panizzi , E. Machado-Neto 1992. Development of nymphs and feeding habits of nymphal and adult Edessa meditabunda (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on soybean and sunflower. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 85: 477–481. Google Scholar

79.

AR Panizzi , JE McPherson , DG James , M Javahery , RM. McPherson 2000a. Economic importance of stink bugs (Pentatomidae), pp.421–474 In : CW Schaefer , AR Panizzi [eds.], Heteroptera of Economic Importance, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL., USA, 828 pp. Google Scholar

80.

AR Panizzi , AM Meneguim , MC. Rossini 1989. Performance of nymphal and adult Nezara viridula on selected alternate host plants. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 50: 215–223. Google Scholar

81.

AR Panizzi , CC. Niva 1994. Overwintering strategy of the brown stink bug in northern Paraná. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 29: 509–511. Google Scholar

82.

AR Panizzi , JRP. Parra 2012. Insect bioecology and nutrition for integrated pest management (IPM), pp. 687–704. In A. R. Panizzi and J. R. P. Parra . Insect Bioecology and Nutrition for integrated Pest Management. CRC Press, New York, USA. 732 pp. Google Scholar

83.

AR Panizzi , CE. Rossi 1991. The role of Acanthospermum hispidum in the phenology of Euschistus heros and of Nezara viridula. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicatta 59: 67–74. Google Scholar

84.

AR Panizzi , Jr F. Slansky 1985a. Review of phytophagous pentatomids (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) associated with soybean in the Americas. Florida Entomologist 68: 185–214. Google Scholar

85.

AR Panizzi , Jr F. Slansky 1985b. New host plant records for the stink bug Piezodorus guildinii in Florida (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Florida Entomologist 68: 215–216. Google Scholar

86.

AR Panizzi , Smith , JG . 1976. Ocorrência de Pentatomidae em soja no Paraná durante 1973/74. O Biológico 42: 173–176. Google Scholar

87.

AR Panizzi , LM. Vivan 1997. Seasonal abundance of the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, in overwintering sites, and the breaking of dormancy. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 82: 213–217. Google Scholar

88.

AR Panizzi , LM Vivan , BS Corrêa-Ferreira , LA. Foerster 1996. Performance of Southern green stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs and adults on a novel food plant (Japanese privet) and other hosts. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 89: 822–827. Google Scholar

89.

PRVS Pereira , JR Salvadori , D. Lau 2010. Cereais de inverno: Principais insetospragas, pp. 225–253 In HP Santos , RS Fontanelli , ST Spera [eds.], Sistemas de produção para Cereais de Inverno sob plantio direto no Sul do Brazil. Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo, Brasil 368 pp. Google Scholar

90.

CA Perez , JLF Souza , O. Nakano 1980. Observações sobre a biologia e hábito do percevejo Thyanta perditor (F.) (Hemiptera-Pentatomidae) em planta de trigo. Solo 72: 61–62. Google Scholar

91.

SB Pinto , AR. Panizzi 1994. Performance of nymphal and adult Euschistus heros (F.) on milkweed and on soybean and effect of food switch on adult survivorship, reproduction and weight gain. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 23: 549–555. Google Scholar

92.

A Ribeiro , E Castiglioni , H Silva , S. Bartaburu 2009. Fluctuaciones de poblaciones de pentatómidos (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) en soja (Glycine max) y lotus (Lotus corniculatus). Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal de Plagas 35: 429–438. Google Scholar

93.

MP. Ricalde 2013. Artropodofauna associada à cultura da oliveira (Olea europaeae L.) no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Ph.D. Thesis, Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil, 76 pp. Google Scholar

94.

HFE. Rizzo 1968. Aspectos morfológicos y biológicos de Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Agronomia Tropical 18: 249–274. Google Scholar

95.

HFE. Rizzo 1976. Hemípteros de interés agrícola. Hemisferio Sur, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 69 pp. Google Scholar

96.

MF. Rosa-Gomes 2010. Avaliação de danos de quatro espécies de percevejos (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) em trigo, soja e milho. Ph.D. Thesis, Passo Fundo University, Brazil, 93 pp. Google Scholar

97.

CJ Rosseto , J Grazia , AJ. Savy 1978. Ocorêncla de Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1974) como praga no estado de São Paulo. In Anais III Congresso Latinoamericano Entomologia e V Congresso Brasileiro de Entomologia. Ilhéus, Brazil. Google Scholar

98.

A Saluso , L Xavier , FAC Silva , AR. Panizzi 2011. An invasive pentatomid pest in Argentina: Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Neotropical Entomology 40: 704–705. Google Scholar

99.

MTB Silva , BSC Fereirra , DR. Sosa-Gomez 2006. Controle de percevejos em soja, pp. 109–123 In LD. Borges [ed], Tecnologia de aplicação de defensivos agrícolas. Plantio Direto Eventos, Passo Fundo. 146 pp. Google Scholar

100.

AGA Silva , CR Gonçalves , DM Galvão , AJL Gonçalves , J Gomes , MM Silva , L. Simoni 1968. Quarto catálogo dos insetos que vivem nas plantas do Brazil: seus parasitos e predadores: insetos, hospedeiros e inimigos naturais. Part. II. Ministério da Agricultura Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 622 pp. Google Scholar

101.

FAC Silva , JJ Silva , RA Depieri , AR. Panizzi 2012. Feeding activity, salivary amylase activity, and superficial damage to soybean seed by adult Edessa meditabunda (F.) and Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Neotropical Entomology 41: 386–390. Google Scholar

102.

JJ Silva , MU Ventura , FAC Silva , AR. Panizzi 2013. Population dynamics of Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on host plants. Neotropical Entomology 42: 141–145. Google Scholar

103.

MF Soria , PE Degrande , AR. Panizzi 2010. Algodoeiro invadido. Revista Cultivar 131: 18–20. Google Scholar

104.

T Stadler , M Buteler , A. Ferrero 2006. Susceptibilidad a endosunfán y monitoreo de resistencia en poblaciones de Piezodorus guildinii (Insecta, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 65: 109–119. Google Scholar

105.

DR Strang , JH Lawton , SR. Southwood 1984. Insects on Plants. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, U.K. 313 pp. Google Scholar

106.

JW. Todd 1989. Ecology and behavior of Nezara viridula. Annual Review of Entomology 34: 273–292. Google Scholar

107.

AQ. Ventura 1988. El cultivo y la investigacion de la soja em Bolivia, pp. 110–119 In B. Ramakrishna [ed.], V Seminario Manejo de Suelos em Sistemas de Producción de Soya. Quito, Ecuador. 290 pp. Google Scholar

108.

GP. Waldbauer 1977. Damage to soybean seeds by South American stink bugs. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 6: 223–229. Google Scholar

109.

RN Williams , JR Panaia , F Moscardi , W Sichmann , GE Allen , DHC. Greene 1973. Principais pragas da soja no Estado de São Paulo. Secretaria de Agricultura, Campinas, Brazil, 18 pp. Google Scholar

110.

IS Winkler , C. Mitter 2008. The phylogenetic dimension of insect-plant interactions: a review of recent evidence, pp. 240–263 In K Tilmon , J. Berkeley [eds.], Specialization, speciation, and radiation: the evolutionary biology of herbivorous insects. University of California Press, USA, 341 pp. Google Scholar

111.

MS. Zerbino 2007. Avances en el control químico de insectos en soja: Jornada de cultivos de verano 2007. Revista INIA, Série Técnica 505, 58 pp. Google Scholar

112.

MS. Zerbino 2009. Avances en el control químico de chinches en soja: Jornada de cultivos de verano 2009. Colonia, Revista INIA, Série Técnica 583, 25 pp. Google Scholar

113.

MS. Zerbino 2010. Manejo de chinches en soja. Revista INIA 23: 24–27. Google Scholar

114.

MS Zerbino , NA Altier , AR. Panizzi 2015. Seasonal abundance on host plants and in overwintering niches and morphological and physiological changes of the red-banded stink bug Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Insect Pest Science (in press). Google Scholar
Lisonéia F. Smaniotto and Antônio R. Panizzi "Interactions of Selected Species of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from Leguminous Crops with Plants in the Neotropics," Florida Entomologist 98(1), 7-17, (1 March 2015). https://doi.org/10.1653/024.098.0103
Published: 1 March 2015
JOURNAL ARTICLE
11 PAGES


SHARE
ARTICLE IMPACT
Back to Top