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2 April 2021 A Study of the Pupal Development of Five Forensically Important Flies (Diptera: Brachycera)
K. B. Barros-Cordeiro, J. R. Pujol-Luz, S. N. Báo
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Holometabolous insects undergo complete metamorphosis, and hence, they have different phases of development (egg, larva, pupa, and adult), which occupy distinct ecological niches. The pupae of several fly species are surrounded by the puparium, which is a rigid structure, usually formed by the integument of the last larval instar. The puparium presents unique characteristics distinct from those of the larval and adult phases. During intrapuparial development, it is possible to distinguish at least four fundamental and continuous steps, namely: 1) larval–pupal apolysis, 2) cryptocephalic pupa, 3) phanerocephalic pupa, and 4) pharate adult. The objective of this work was to describe the external morphology of the distinct phase of development for five species that were collected, identified, and raised in the laboratory; intrapuparial development was studied by fixing immature specimens at regular intervals; the morphological analyses were performed with the aid of both light and scanning electron microscopy. Under the conditions established (27 ± 1.0 or 23 ± 1.0°C, 60 ± 10% relative humidity, 12 h of photoperiod), the minimum time for intrapuparial development was: 252 h for Megaselia scalaris (Loew 1966) (Phoridae), 192 h for Piophila casei (Linnaeus 1758) (Piophilidae), Fannia pusio (Wiedemann 1830) (Fanniidae), and Musca domestica (Linnaeus 1758) (Muscidae), and 96 h for Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius 1794) (Calliphoridae). Intrapuparial development has defined steps, and distinct species responded differently to the same environmental conditions. In addition, it is possible to establish a sequential rule without ignoring the specific characteristics of each taxon.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
K. B. Barros-Cordeiro, J. R. Pujol-Luz, and S. N. Báo "A Study of the Pupal Development of Five Forensically Important Flies (Diptera: Brachycera)," Journal of Medical Entomology 58(4), 1643-1653, (2 April 2021).
Received: 15 October 2020; Accepted: 22 February 2021; Published: 2 April 2021

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