Medical records of three male and three female callitrichids of four species (Leontopithecus chrysopygus, Leontopithecus rosalia, Callithrix argentata argentata, Callithrix kuhlii) diagnosed with cholelithiasis were reviewed. Ages of affected animals at the time of diagnosis ranged from 2–14 yr. Definitive antemortem diagnosis of cholelithiasis was made in four of the six cases. Chronic weight loss, lethargy, and weakness were seen in all cases. Chronic intermittent diarrhea was seen in three cases. Icterus and abnormal gait were each present in two of the animals. Hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities included leukocytosis in five cases, elevated bilirubin (direct and indirect) in four cases, and anemia in four cases. Radiographic evidence of choleliths was observed in three cases. Surgical removal of choleliths was successfully performed on two animals. Full necropsies were performed on all cases, and choleliths were believed to contribute to morbidity in all cases. However, inflammatory bowel disease was determined to be the primary cause of weight loss and mortality in at least three animals. All choleliths analyzed were pigment stones, two being primarily composed of cystine.
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Vol. 37 • No. 1