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1 May 2016 Evaluation of Herbicide Programs for Use in a 2,4-D–Resistant Soybean Technology for Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth ( Amaranthus palmeri)
M. Ryan Miller, Jason K. Norsworthy

Two separate field experiments were conducted over a 2-yr period in Fayetteville, AR, during 2012 and 2013 to (1) evaluate POST herbicide programs utilizing a premixture of dimethylamine (DMA) salt of glyphosate choline salt of 2,4-D in a soybean line resistant to 2,4-D, glyphosate, and glufosinate and (2) determine efficacy of herbicide programs that begin with PRE residual herbicides followed by POST applications of 2,4-D choline glyphosate DMA on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. In the first experiment, POST applications alone that incorporated the use of residual herbicides with the glyphosate 2,4-D premixture provided 93 to 99% control of Palmer amaranth at the end of the season. In the second experiment, the use of flumioxazin, flumioxazin chlorimuron methyl, S-metolachlor fomesafen, or sulfentrazone chloransulam applied PRE provided 94 to 98% early-season Palmer amaranth control. Early-season control helped maintain a high level of Palmer amaranth control throughout the growing season, in turn resulting in fewer reproductive Palmer amaranth plants present at soybean harvest compared to most other treatments. Although no differences in soybean yield were observed among treated plots, it was evident that herbicide programs should begin with PRE residual herbicides followed by POST applications of glyphosate 2,4-D mixed with residual herbicides to minimize late-season escapes and reduce the likelihood of contributions to the soil seedbank. Dependent upon management decisions, the best stewardship of this technology will likely rely on the use multiple effective mechanisms of action incorporated into a fully integrated weed management system.

Nomenclature: 2,4-D choline; chlorimuron methyl; chloransulam; flumioxazin; fomesafen; glyphosate; glufosinate; sulfentrazone; S-metolachlor; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr.

Dos experimentos de campo fueron realizados separados durante un período de dos años en Fayetteville, AR, durante 2012 y 2013 para (1) evaluar programas de herbicidas POST utilizando una premezcla de sal dimethylamine (DMA) de glyphosate sal choline de 2,4-D con una línea de soja resistente a 2,4-D, glyphosate, y glufosinate y (2) determinar la eficacia de programas de herbicidas que inician con herbicidas PRE residuales seguidos por aplicaciones POST de 2,4-D choline glyphosate DMA para el control de Amaranthus palmeri resistente a glyphosate. En el primer experimento, aplicaciones POST solas que incorporaron el uso de herbicidas residuales con la premezcla de glyphosate 2,4-D brindaron 93 a 99% de control de A. palmeri al final de la temporada. En el segundo experimento, el uso de flumioxazin, flumioxazin chlorimuron methyl, S-metolachlor fomesafen, o sulfentrazone chloransulam aplicados PRE brindaron 94 a 98% de control de A. palmeri temprano durante la temporada de crecimiento. El control temprano en la temporada ayudó a mantener un alto nivel de control de A. palmeri a lo largo de la temporada de crecimiento, lo que resultó un menos plantas de A. palmeri en estado reproductivo al momento de la cosecha de la soja, al compararse con la mayoría de los otros tratamientos. Aunque no se observaron diferencias en el rendimiento de la soja entre parcelas tratadas, fue evidente que los programas de herbicidas deberían iniciar con herbicidas residuales PRE seguidos de aplicaciones POST de mezclas de glyphosate 2,4-D con herbicidas residuales para minimizar los escapes tarde en la temporada y así poder reducir la probabilidad de contribuciones al banco de semillas

M. Ryan Miller and Jason K. Norsworthy "Evaluation of Herbicide Programs for Use in a 2,4-D–Resistant Soybean Technology for Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth ( Amaranthus palmeri)," Weed Technology 30(2), 366-376, (1 May 2016).
Received: 18 August 2015; Accepted: 1 October 2015; Published: 1 May 2016
2,4-D–resistant soybean
Herbicide programs
transgenic soybean
weed control
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