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1 August 2018 Weed Control and Tolerance of Sulfonylurea Herbicides in Caladium
Jialin Yu, Nathan S. Boyd
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Abstract

Control of broadleaf weeds in caladium is difficult due in part to a lack of selective POST herbicides. Cultivation is not an option due to the dense canopy and potential for tuber injury. As a result, growers currently rely on preemergence (PRE) herbicide and hand-weeding. The objective of this research was to evaluate the control of four common broadleaf weeds of field grown caladium with POST applications of halosulfuron, thifensulfuron-methyl, and trifloxysulfuron, and determine the tolerance of caladium cultivars ‘Florida Fantasy’ and ‘Florida cardinal’ to POST applications of halosulfuron. At 4 weeks after treatment (WAT), thifensufluron-methyl at 28 g ai ha-1 and trifloxysulfuron at 84 g ai ha-1 provided approximately 90 and 70% common purslane control, respectively, while halosulfuron at 210 g ai ha-1 provided 55% suppression. Trifloxysulfuron controlled ≥90% spotted spurge at 42 g ha-1, whereas the highest rate of halosulfuron and thifensulfuron-methyl only achieved 60% suppression. In field experiments, the evaluated sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides were less efficacious on hairy indigo and sharppod morningglory as control never exceeded 65 and 50%, respectively. In greenhouse experiments, the evaluated halosulfuron rates ranging from 26 to 420 g ha-1 did not significantly reduce caladium tuber weight from the nontreated control. Averaged over halosulfuron rates, ‘Florida Fantasy’ damage was 5 and 6% at 2 and 4 WAT, respectively, while ‘Florida Cardinal’ damage was 11%. We conclude that none of the herbicide treatments effectively controlled all species evaluated. Sequential treatments, higher rates, or tank-mixtures may be necessary to adequately control these species. We also conclude that caladium cultivars ‘Florida Fantasy’ and ‘Florida Cardinal’ have acceptable tolerance to POST applications of halosulfuron. Further research is needed to evaluate caladium tolerance to other SU herbicides.

Nomenclature: Halosulfuron; thifensulfuron-methyl; trifloxysulfuron; common purslane, Portulaca oleracea L.; hairy indigo, Indigofera hirsuta L.; sharppod morningglory, Ipomoea cordatotriloba Dennst.; spotted spurge, Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small; caladium, Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent

© Weed Science Society of America, 2018.
Jialin Yu and Nathan S. Boyd "Weed Control and Tolerance of Sulfonylurea Herbicides in Caladium," Weed Technology 32(4), 424-430, (1 August 2018). https://doi.org/10.1017/wet.2018.30
Received: 6 January 2018; Accepted: 22 March 2018; Published: 1 August 2018
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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KEYWORDS
Broadleaf weeds
caladiums
control
rate
Sulfonylurea herbicides
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