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1 April 2016 Allium dumanii (A. sect. Codonoprasum, Amaryllidaceae), a new species from E Turkey
Mine Koçyiğıt, Yeter Yeşıl, Mehmet Koyuncu
Author Affiliations +

Allium dumanii Koyuncu & Koçyiğit, a new species in A. sect. Codonoprasum (Rchb.) Endl. from Kahramanmaraş and Malatya, Anatolia, is described and illustrated. It is compared with the possibly related A. armenum Boiss. & Kotschy. The karyomorphology of A. dumanii and A. armenum is also presented and discussed. The chromosome number of the new species is 2n = 16.

Version of record first published online on 1 April 2016 ahead of inclusion in April 2016 issue.


The genus Allium L. is the largest genus in Turkey, comprising about 220 taxa grouped into 14 sections; 86 taxa are endemic to the country (endemism rate 39.1%) (Kaya 2014; Özhatay & al. 2014). Allium has been treated in the family Liliaceae (s.l.) by Kollmann (1984). However, it is included in the family Amaryllidaceae according to The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). Allium sect. Codonoprasum (Rchb.) Endl., the second largest and the most taxonomically complicated section in Turkey, includes 55 taxa, of which 25 are endemic to the country (Koyuncu 2012; Koçyiğit & al. 2014). Recent taxonomic research in the genus has been mainly focused in the Mediterranean area, SW Asia and parts of C Asia and has resulted in the description of several new species and subspecies, increasing the number of Allium taxa to more than 900 worldwide (Brullo & Tzanoudakis 1994; Brullo & al. 2001; Brullo & al. 2008; Friesen 2008; Khassanov & al. 2011; Koçyiğit & Özhatay 2012; Khassanov & al. 2013; Tojibaev & al. 2014; Galdo & al. 2015; Seregin 2015; Tzanoudakis & Trigas 2015). The above mentioned areas have been considered as the gene centre of the genus (Friesen 2008).

The new species was first collected in 1986 from Kahramanmaraş Province by Prof. H. Duman and was already mentioned by M. Koyuncu in an unpublished report of the project “Endemic Allium in Turkey” in 1994 (Koyuncu & Güvenç 1994). Later, in the Ph.D. thesis project by M. Koçyiğit “Taxonomic studies on the genus Allium (sect. Codonoprasum) in Turkey” performed in 2007–2010 under the supervision of Prof. N. Özhatay, some specimens were collected from Malatya Province and they were compared with the Kahramanmaraş specimens and other herbarium material. They were examined in detail morphologically and karyologically. Because of the simple filaments and absence of conspicuous nectaries on the ovary, they were determined as belonging to A. sect. Codonoprasum. The new species shows similarities with the Turkish endemic A. armenum Boiss. & Kotschy because it has persistent spathe valves shorter than or equalling the umbel, lax and globose inflorescence, campanulate perigon, and ovoid-globose ovary. A careful examination of herbarium specimens, however, revealed that the populations in fact differ from A. armenum in several morphological characters, particularly in the capsule and flower features. The material is described in the present paper as a species new to science, A. dumanii Koyuncu & Koçyiğit.

Material and methods

The comparison of Allium dumanii with A. armenum was based on living material, herbarium specimens kept at AEF, E, G, ISTE and K (herbarium codes according to Thiers [continuously updated]) and on data derived from the available literature. Ten different bulbs of each species were investigated karyologically and 10–15 metaphase plates were studied. Chromosome counts were obtained from somatic metaphases using a standard squash technique (Koçyiğit & Bona 2013; Demirci & al. 2013). The karyomorphology of the new species was described and compared with that of A. armenum. The classification of chromosomes follows Levan & al. (1964).

Fig. 1.

Allium dumanii — A: habit; B: inflorescence. — Turkey, B6 Malatya, Akçadağ, Kürecik, Harunuşağr Köyü, Kavurma Yaylası altı, 2200 m, 2 Aug 2008, photographed by Y. Yeşil (ISTE 87025).


Results and Discussion

Allium dumanii Koyuncu & Koçyiğit, sp. nov.Fig. 1& 2.

Holotype: Turkey, C6 Kahramanmaraş, Engizek Mountain, Küçükyeşil area, 2300 m, 19 Jul 1986, H. Duman 1987 (AEF; isotypes: GAZI, ISTE).

Description — Bulb ovoid, 1–1.5 × 0.4–0.8 cm; outer tunics greyish brown, papyraceous, without collar; inner tunics yellowish to dirty white, membranous; bulblets absent. Leaves 1 or 2(or 3), semicylindric, fıstulose, canaliculate, 5–8 cm × 1–1.5 mm, longer than scape, glabrous. Leaf sheaths yellow, glabrous. Scape cylindrical, curved in upper part, 3–5(–10) cm × 0.8–1 mm, glabrous, not pruinose, covered for ½–⅔ its length by leaf sheaths. Spathe valves 2, persistent, acuminate from a broader and connected base, slightly unequal, shorter than or equalling umbel, longer valve 6–10 mm long, shorter valve 5–8 mm long, both valves 3- or 4-nerved, margin entire. Inflorescence lax, globose, 1–1.5 cm in diam., 14–20-flowered; pedicels slender, filiform, almost equal, 3–.6 mm long in flower, 8–10 mm long in fruit, pruinose. Perigon shortly campanulate; tepals purple-mauve, elliptic, equal, 2.5–3 × 0.8–1 mm, apex obtuse. Stamens exserted; filaments white, subulate, 3–3.5 mm long, c. 1.25 × perigon, connate with tepals at base in an annulus 0.4–0.5 mm high; anthers purple, ovate, 0.7–0.8 × 0.3–0.4 mm, apex rounded. Ovary ovoid-globose, shortly stipitate, 0.9–1 × 0.5–0.6 mm; style white, 3–3.2 mm long, c. 1.25 × stamens, c. 2 × perigon; stigma globose. Capsule globose-oblong, 2–2.5 × 1.5–2 mm. Seeds black, narrowly obovate, 1.9–2.4 × 0.4–0.6 mm, wrinkled.

Fig. 2.

Flower details of Allium dumanii (A) and A. armenum (B) — a: tepals and filaments; b: ovary; c: capsule; d: capsule valve; e: seed; f: spathe valves; g: anther. — Drawn by M. Koçyiğit: A from Y. Yeşil (ISTE 87025); B from M. Koçyiğit 108 (ISTE 87033).


Fig. 3.

Distribution of Allium dumanii () and A. armenum (▪) in Turkey.


Fig. 4.

Allium dumanii (A, B) and A. armenum (C, D) — A, C: somatic chromosomes; B, D: idiogram. — Scale bar = 10 µm. — A, B from Y. Yeşil (ISTE 87025); C, D from M. Koçyiğit 227 (ISTE 87589).


Phenology — Flowering in August and September.

Distribution and ecologyAllium dumanii is endemic to Turkey and distributed in the Irano-Turanian phytogeographical region. It grows on rocky slopes at altitudes of 1545–2300 m and is known from Kahramanmaraş (the type locality) and Malatya (Fig. 3).

Etymology — The new species is named after Hayri Duman, collector of the new species and Professor of Botany in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Gazi University.

Karyology — The members of Allium sect. Codonoprasum are generally characterized by a uniform haploid chromosome complement consisting of eight ± median and submedian chromosomes (Özhatay 1984; Tzanoudakis 1986; Koçyiğit & Özhatay 2012). The results of the present study are more or less in agreement with the above statement: the diploid chromosome number was found to be the same (2n = 16) and only small morphological differences were observed on the karyotypes (Table 2). Allium dumanii resulted diploid with 2n = 16 chromosomes, showing a karyotype similar to that of A. armenum, as follows:

Allium dumanii: karyotype formula 2n = 2x = 16 = 14m+2mSAT. Metaphase chromosome length 40.151–27.904 µm; total haploid chromosome length 134.856 µm ±0.92 (Fig. 4).

Allium armenum: karyotype formula 2n = 2x = 16 = 14m+2sm. Metaphase chromosome length from 35.972–26.272 µm; total haploid chromosome length 118.836 µm ±0.90 (Fig. 4).

Taxonomic remarksAllium dumanii clearly belongs to A. sect. Codonoprasum because it has simple filaments, absence of conspicuous nectaries on the ovary, and two opposite spathe valves, which are unequal with at least one shorter than the umbel or at most as long as the umbel. In some morphological features and in karyotype the new species is well differentiated from other similar taxa of this section. On the basis of the morphology of the spathe valves, perigon and ovary A. dumanii shows similarities with A. armenum, but differs in having yellowish to dirtywhite inner bulb tunics, glabrous leaves, yellow and glabrous leaf sheaths, shorter scape, and purple-mauve and equal tepals. Also the flowering time of A. dumanii (August-September) is later than that of A. armenum (July-August). Despite both examined species sharing the same diploid chromosome number, A. dumanii differs from A. armenum in having 16 metacentric (m), one of which has a SAT chromosome. The morphological and karyological differences between the new species and A. armenum are summarized in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1.

Comparison of the morphological characteristics of Allium dumanii and A. armenum.


Table 2.

Measurements of somatic chromosomes of Allium dumanii and A. armenum.


Additional specimens examinedAllium dumanii: Turkey: B6 Malatya: Akçadağ, Kürecik, Harunuşağı Köyü, Kavurma Yaylası altı, 2200 m, 2 Aug 2008, Y. Yeşil (ISTE 87025); ibid., 2 Sep 2010, Y. Yeşil (ISTE). — Allium armenum: Turkey: A7 Gümüşhane: 1200 m, 23 Jul 1981, T. Gözler & M. A. Önür (ISTE 55216); 1370 m, Balls 1714 (E); Aşkale-Bayburt arası, Kop geçidi, 2430 m, 7 Aug 1983, N. & E. Özhatay & G. Sarιyar (ISTE 52104). — Trabzon: Stavri, 1280 m, Balls 5081 (E). — A8 Erzurum: Yiğitpınar köyü, 8 Jul 1987, A & T. Baytop (ISTE 58027); Erzurum'dan Tortum'a 25 km, 1950 m, 14 Jul 1982, N. & E. Özhatay (ISTE 49501); Yeşildere köyü yolayrımından 500 m sonra, 1940 m, 5 Jul 2007, M. Koçyiğit 225 (ISTE 87587); Erzurum-Tortum arası, 1500 m, 17 Jul 1990, M. Koyuncu (AEF 15404); ıkizdere-ıspir arası, Erzurum'a 120 km kala, 2200 m, 7 Aug 1983, N. & E. Özhatay & G. Sarıyar (ISTE 52093); ıspir-Erzurum yolu, Gökyurt geçidi, 2285 m, 27 Jul 1987, M. Koyuncu & al. (AEF 17882); ıspir, Çapa köyü altı, 1850 m, 27 Jul 1991, M. Koyuncu & al. (AEF 17881); Erzurum-Pasinler yolu, 5–10 km' ler arası, 2200 m, 18 Jul 1990, M. Koyuncu (AEF 15636); Erzurum-Ilıca arası, Ağaören köyünün batısı, 1800 m, 4 Jul 2007, M. Koçyiğit 227 (ISTE 87589); Tortum'un 7 km üstleri, 1900 m, Ehrendorfer & Fischer 787-119-3 (K). — Bayburt: Çoruh vadisi, ÇakırbağDarıca arası, 1550 m, 26 Jul 1991, M. Koyuncu & al. (AEF 17866); Darıca köyü, 1750–1850 m, 27 Jul 1991, M. Koyuncu & al. (AEF 17880). — A9 Kars: Susuz-Ardahan yolu, Susuz'u geçince, 1600 m, 15 Jul 1986, M. Koyuncu (AEF 18559); Kuyucuk, 1800 m, 29 Aug 2007, N. Özhatay 206 (ISTE 87706). — Iğdir: Tuzluca, E. Altundağ (ISTE 85600). — B6 Kahramanmaraş: Göksun, Berit dağı etekleri, Karadut-Ericak köyleri arası, 1430 m, 20 Jun 1979, E. Tuzlacı & M. Saraçoğlu (ISTE 42362). — Sıvas: şarkışla-Kale Köyü, Ebruz Kalesi, 1450 m, 6 Jul 1979, T. Ekim 4408 (ISTF). — B7 Erzıncan: Ovacık, Munzur Suyu Barajı, 1200 m, 18 Jun 1979, ş. Yıldırımlı 2034 (herb. Yıldırımlı); Eğin (Kemaliye), 1890, Sintenis 2978 [as A. stamineum Boiss. f. brachyantha Hausskn.] (K). — B8 Erzurum: Ömertepe köyü, Ilıca yakını, 1750 m, 15 Jul 1988, T. Baytop (ISTE 59414); Erzurum'da Çat'a giderken 22 km, 2000 m, 13 Jul 1982, N. & E. Özhatay (ISTE 49454); 19 Jul 1990, M. Koyuncu (AEF 15667); Palandöken Da., 2350 m, 1 Aug 1983, N. & E. Özhatay & G. Sarıyar (ISTE 51960); Erzurum-Aşkale arası, 20 km, 1800 m, 18 Jul 1990, M. Koyuncu (AEF 15622); Pasinler, Otlukkapı Köyü, 1750–1870 m, 19 Aug 1988, Y. Kaya 9187 (ATA); Palandöken Dağı, Çat'tan Erzurum'a giderken 20–23 km, 2300–2350 m, Davis 47334 (E). — Bıngöl: Bingöl Dağı'nın güney etekleri, 1700–1800 m, Engin 936 (K). — B9 Van: Pirreşit Dağı, Adaklı Köyü-Sultan Gölü arasında, 2500 m, 28 Jun 1998, M. Ünal 4229 (ISTF). — B10 Iğdir: Aralık, Küçük Ağrı eteği, 1200 m, 5 Jul 1984, M. Koyuncu (AEF 15511). — Van: Özalp, Yukarı Tulgalı Köyü, 2170 m, 10 Jun 1997, F. Özgökçe 5866 (VPH). — C8 Mardın: Gercüş-Midyat arası, Gercüş'ten 1 km, 1120 m, 8 Jun 1979, E. Tuzlacı & M. Saraçoğlu (ISTE 42096); Diyarbakır-Mardin Yolu, Sultanköy, 950 m, 22 May 2008, M. Koçyiğit 108 (ISTE 87033). — C9 Sıırt: Herakol Dağı, Mila Mergi Yaylası, 1900 m, Frödin 1936 (K).


This project is financially supported by the Scientific Investigation Project Coordinator of Istanbul University (project no: 39135 and 56163). Panayiotis Trigas (ACA) and an anonymous reviewer are thanked for their comments on an earlier version of this paper. Also we thank the curators and staff members of the following herbaria: AEF, ATA, E, ISTE, ISTF, K and VPH.



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© 2016 The Authors · This open-access article is distributed under the CC BY 4.0 licence
Mine Koçyiğıt, Yeter Yeşıl, and Mehmet Koyuncu "Allium dumanii (A. sect. Codonoprasum, Amaryllidaceae), a new species from E Turkey," Willdenowia 46(1), 113-119, (1 April 2016).
Received: 5 August 2015; Accepted: 14 January 2016; Published: 1 April 2016
Allium sect. Codonoprasum
chromosome number
new species
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