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This study describes the nesting biology of the cleptoparasitic bee Melecta duodecimmaculata (Rossi), which attacked a nesting site of Anthophora (s. str.) melanognatha Cockerell (Apidae: Anthophorini) in Beijing, China. In addition, we provide an account of its first and last larval instars and information concerning ovarian statistics and mature oocytes. Comparisons are made with previous accounts of the cleptoparasitic behavior and anatomy of immature stages of other Melectini. We also explore the phylogenetic relationship of the Melectini with the Anthophorini and with other cleptoparasitic Apinae (especially the Ericrocidini) in light of this information. Appended are accounts of larval anatomy of the Melectini and Anthophorini at the tribal level based on taxa whose mature larvae were available or had been described.
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