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New Oligocene and Miocene decapods from Argentina include four new Miocene species, Nectocarcinus verruculus, Cancer zameniscus, Chaceon marcorilobus, and Eurynome bandurriasensis, and one new Oligocene genus and species, Disspinamithrax santacruzensis. The new specimens also include an axiid (Ctenochelidae), and several previously named brachyurans. The Miocene fauna of the Estancia 25 de Mayo Formation shares some taxa with other Miocene faunas from Argentina but is distinct.
Nyctitheres are a diverse Paleogene group of insectivorous mammals from Asia, North America, and Europe. Known mostly from their relatively unspecialized tribosphenic dentitions, various taxa currently placed in the family Nyctitheriidae have previously been considered to belong to such disparate extinct eutherian families as Leptictidae and Adapisoriculidae, and some have even been considered to be early bats. Here we describe a large collection of nyctitheres from the late Paleocene (early Clarkforkian) of Big Multi Quarry in Sweetwater County, Wyoming, USA, representing the most diverse faunal assemblage of nyctitheres currently known. Big Multi Quarry is unique among currently known Clarkforkian sites because of its excellent preservation of microvertebrates, including hundreds of specimens belonging to Eulipotyphla, Primatomorpha, Metatheria, and Multituberculata. The Big Multi fauna includes at least eight species of nyctitheres and preserves the earliest known occurrences of the genera CeutholestesRose and Gingerich, 1987, and PlagioctenoidesBown, 1979, as well as additional specimens belonging to the species Limaconyssus habrusGingerich, 1987, and Wyonycteris chalixGingerich, 1987. New species of nyctitheres from this fauna include: Ceutholestes acerbus, new species; Plagioctenoides cryptos, new species; Plagioctenodon dawsonae, new species; and Plagioctenodon goliath, new species. This large sample of nyctitheres enhances our knowledge of the anatomy of several poorly known taxa including those comprising the subfamily Placentidentinae, for which we provide an emended diagnosis.
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