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Othonna L. (Asteraceae: Senecioneae: Othonninae) is a genus of some 120 species concentrated in the Greater Cape Floristic Region (GCFR) of South Africa, with a few species extending into southern Namibia, Angola, and Zimbabwe. The South African species of Othonna were last revised more than a century ago, and many species, particularly from the southern African winter rainfall region, remain poorly understood. This study focused on the geophytic species comprising the O. bulbosa group, distinguished by their tuberous rootstock and annual, leafy, aerial stems. A comprehensive taxonomic treatment is presented, including descriptions, complete nomenclature and typification, illustrations, and geographical distribution. Twenty-five species are recognized, of which four are newly described (O. lilacina Magoswana & J. C. Manning, O. nigromontana Magoswana & J. C. Manning, O. revoluta Magoswana & J. C. Manning, and O. sinuata Magoswana & J. C. Manning), and 18 names are reduced to synonymy. The species differ in habit, shape and incision of foliage, capitulum type (radiate vs. disciform), number of involucral bracts, pappus length, and cypselae (myxogenic vs. nonmyxogenic). We place the species into four morphologically diagnosable series (series Heterophyllae Magoswana & J. C. Manning, series Disciformes Magoswana & J. C. Manning, series Perfoliatae Magoswana & J. C. Manning, and series Undulosae Magoswana & J. C. Manning) based on habit and capitulum type.
A worldwide taxonomic revision of the species belonging to the moss genus Chionoloma Dixon (Pottiaceae) is here presented. Our work is based on the morphological analysis of more than 2600 specimens deposited in different herbaria or collected during field trips. A total of 131 names were found and their nomenclatural types were examined, resulting in the lectotypification of 45 names. It is concluded that Chionoloma is composed of 22 species and one variety, seven of them are here newly combined (C. circinatum (Besch.) M. Alonso, M. J. Cano & J. A. Jiménez; C. cylindrotheca (Mitt.) M. Alonso, M. J. Cano & J. A. Jiménez; C. hyalinoblastum (Broth.) M. Alonso, M. J. Cano & J. A. Jiménez; C. melanostomum (Mitt.) M. Alonso, M. J. Cano & J. A. Jiménez; C. orthodontum (Müll. Hal.) M. Alonso, M. J. Cano & J. A. Jiménez; C. sarawakense (Dixon) M. Alonso, M. J. Cano & J. A. Jiménez; and C. stenocarpum (Thér.) M. Alonso, M. J. Cano & J. A. Jiménez). Moreover, 42 names are newly synonymized and a total of 74 new records for various countries are reported. Keys, descriptions, illustrations, photographs, and distribution data of each species are provided.
The New World genus Heterosperma Cav. is circumscribed to include 11 species: H. achaetum S. F. Blake, H. diversifolium Kunth, H. ferreyrii H. Rob., H. mexicanum (A. Gray ex S. Watson) Lizarazu & S. E. Freire, H. nanum (Nutt.) Sherff, H. ovale S. F. Blake, H. ovatifolium Cav., H. pinnatum Cav., H. spathulatum S. F. Blake, H. tenuisectum (Griseb.) Cabrera, and H. trilobum S. F. Blake. Heterosperma is described as having a usually herbaceous habit, pinnatisect or entire leaves, radiate capitula, and heteromorphic cypselae. The following taxa are newly synonymized: Coreopsis L. sect. Anathysana S. F. Blake with Heterosperma; H. maritimum Kunth var. hirsuta Hieron. with H. ovatifolium; and H. maritimum var. latifolia Hieron. with H. spathulatum. Lectotypes are here designated for H. maritimum var. hirsuta, H. pinnatum, H. tagetinum A. Gray, H. spathulatum, and H. maritimum var. latifolia. A key to the species of the genus is provided, as well as morphological descriptions, illustrations, and distribution maps. A detailed morphological study of trichomes and pappus is also presented.
Kaunia R. M. King & H. Rob. is a small genus of 11 species that play an important role in Andean ecosystems, either by dominating specific vegetation units or as subdominant species at boundaries of alder communities and pino del cerro forests. The species of Kaunia are shrubs or small trees with commonly pinkish or white, usually tubular-funnelform corollas of internally smooth lobes lacking papillae, uniformly wide styles, and 20 to 26 chromosomes. A complete and exhaustive treatment of Kaunia is lacking, and so its taxonomy is herein revised. As a result of this work, together with those of previous statistical studies, 10 species of Kaunia are recognized. Kaunia ignorata (Hieron.) R. M. King & H. Rob. is placed under synonymy of K. camataquiensis (Hieron.) R. M. King & H. Rob., and a lectotype for Eupatorium hosanense B. L. Rob. is designated. Our study provides the first morphological and anatomical study of Kaunia. A key to the species, detailed descriptions, illustrations, and distribution maps for each species are also provided.