Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches.
Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content.
Contact email@example.com with any questions.
Buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link] is a drought-tolerant invasive grass that is a threat to native biodiversity in the drylands of the Americas and Australia. Despite efforts from land managers to control P. ciliare, management approaches tend to have mixed success, treatment results can be poorly communicated among entities, and there are few long-term controlled studies. In this literature review, we synthesize data from both peer-reviewed and “gray” literature on the efficacy of management techniques to control P. ciliare and the secondary impacts to native plant communities. Our search resulted in 42 unique sources containing a total of 229 studies that we categorized into 10 treatment types, which included herbicide, seeding, manual removal, fire, grazing, biocontrol, fire + additional treatments, manual removal + additional treatments, herbicide + additional treatments, and herbicide + manual removal. We found that treatments that used multiple techniques in tandem along with followup treatments were the most effective at controlling P. ciliare. Fewer than one-third of the studies reported impacts of management on native species, and the most commonly studied treatment (herbicide, N = 130) showed detrimental impacts on native plant communities. However, the average time between treatment and outcome measurement was only 15 mo; we suggest the need for more long-term studies of treatment efficacy and secondary impacts of treatment on the ecosystem. Finally, we conducted a second literature review on P. ciliare biology and traits for mechanisms that allows P. ciliare to alter the invaded environment to facilitate a competitive advantage over native species. We found evidence of self-reinforcing feedbacks of invasion being generated by P. ciliare through its interactions with water availability, nutrient cycling, and disturbance regimes. We developed a conceptual model of P. ciliare based on these feedback loops and offer management considerations based on its invasion dynamics and biology.
Lesser celandine (Ficaria verna Huds.), an invasive plant from Europe, is becoming widespread in river valleys throughout the northeastern United States and the Pacific Northwest. Its high rate of asexual bulbil and tuber production creates dense infestations threatening native spring ephemerals. Ficaria verna abundance and reproductive output (seeds, bulbils, and tubers) were examined in invaded transects spanning a disturbance gradient away from a river. Site characteristics (photosynthetically active radiation [PAR], soil pH, moisture, texture, and nutrients) were quantified to examine their roles in plant abundance and reproduction. A larger-scale study examined random transects not specifically chosen based on F. verna infestations. Soil characteristics and slope were hypothesized to drive F. verna abundance and reproduction; we also hypothesized that reproductive output and biomass would be highest at intermediate distances from rivers, where disturbances are infrequent. Ficaria verna abundance and reproductive output varied considerably by site; soil characteristics, rather than landscape placement, appeared to drive plant abundance and reproduction. Lower percent sand was associated with significantly higher F. verna stem density and bulbil and tuber production. CEC was significantly negatively related to F. verna biomass and tuber counts. In the larger-scale survey, slope and PAR were significantly negatively related to F. verna presence and percent cover, respectively. Overall, these findings suggest that soil texture and slope can help explain higher abundance and reproductive outputs. However, reproductive output and biomass were not significantly greater at intermediate distances, contrary to expectations. We did not observe any seed production in any of the plots, although we did see a few plants with seeds outside our study area in the second year, demonstrating a near-complete reliance on asexual reproduction in these populations. This study expands on the current limited understanding of F. verna and can help management by identifying areas likely to support dense infestations.
Ventenata [Ventenata dubia (Leers) Cross] is a winter annual grass relatively new to the inland Pacific Northwest that is capable of displacing desired vegetation. Indaziflam was evaluated for the management of V. dubia on two Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) sites near Moscow, ID, and Pullman, WA. While perennial grasses were dormant, applications of indaziflam in mixture with various herbicides were made in spring 2016. Treatment effects were evaluated for 2 yr by visual assessments of community composition and canopy cover of V. dubia and other non-weedy species (assessments occurred 3 to 6 mo after treatment, depending on location) and by representative cover class assessments. Biomass samples of all plant species were collected in the summer of 2017. Reduced V. dubia cover was observed in 2016, except when glyphosate was used alone. In 2017 indaziflam applied alone or in mixture with rimsulfuron effectively controlled V. dubia with minimal impact on desirable vegetation. Plant biomass from nontreated plots averaged 40 g m–2 for V. dubia and 100 to 179 g m–2 for perennial grasses. Plant biomass averaged <11 g m–2 for V. dubia and 371 to 490 g m–2 for perennial grasses when indaziflam at 102 g ai ha–1 plus glyphosate at 474 g ai ha–1 was applied. Smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) biomass was positively associated with the reduction of V. dubia, and there was a decrease in diversity associated with the removal of V. dubia through effective treatments. Indaziflam is an effective tool for the management of V. dubia in perennial grass stands, and spring applications of indaziflam should be in mixture with herbicides with POST activity.
Hen's eyes (Ardisia crenata Sims) is a shade-tolerant invasive shrub displacing native understory in forests of the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. Few studies have explored herbicide effectiveness on A. crenata, with foliar applications of triclopyr amine or triclopyr ester typically referenced as the standard treatments. This study evaluated efficacy of eight foliar herbicide treatments and a nontreated check at three locations at 12 mo after the first treatment (12MAT1) and 12 mo after the second treatment (12MAT2) on established (greater than 8-cm high) and seedling (less than 8-cm high) A. crenata. Treatments were four triclopyr formulations: amine, ester, choline, and acid (all at 4.04 kg ae ha–1); imazamox (1.12 and 2.24 kg ae ha–1); flumioxazin (0.43 kg ai ha–1); and triclopyr amine plus flumioxazin (4.04 + 0.43 kg ae ha–1). At 12MAT1, triclopyr ester, the high rate of imazamox, and triclopyr acid resulted in greater control of established A. crenata than any other herbicide (68%, 66%, and 64%, respectively). At 12MAT2, all herbicides except flumioxazin resulted in some control of A. crenata. Triclopyr ester, triclopyr acid, and the high rate of imazamox provided 95%, 93%, and 92% control, respectively. Triclopyr choline did not perform as well as the acid or ester formulations, and the tank mix of flumioxazin and triclopyr amine did not improve control over triclopyr amine alone. This study identified triclopyr acid and imazamox (2.24 kg ae ha–1) as new options for A. crenata control and indicated variation in the performance among the four triclopyr formulations.
Burmareed [Neyraudia reynaudiana (Kunth) Keng ex Hitchc.] is an aggressive invader of pine rockland communities in south Florida. Currently, it is managed by clipping the stems and later returning, when plants have regrown to approximately 50 cm in height, to administer applications of glyphosate to new foliar growth (a “cut–return–treat,” or CRT, strategy). This multi-visit strategy is time-consuming and may result in off-target effects due to the broad-spectrum nature of glyphosate. With this study we evaluated a cut-stem (CS) approach, in which stems are cut and immediately treated with herbicide. Further, we tested the efficacy of the selective graminicides sethoxydim and fluazifop-P-butyl. In a pot study, CS treatments included: glyphosate (239.7 g ae L–1) in water, sethoxydim (9.0 g ai L–1) or fluazifop-P-butyl (12.1 g ai L–1) in either basal oil or water, and triclopyr (47.9 g ae L–1) in basal oil. All CS treatments provided mortality and growth reduction comparable to the best CRT treatments (glyphosate, sethoxydim, and fluazifop-P-butyl) and were therefore evaluated under field conditions using the same application rates. Mortality was low in the field (≤30%) regardless of herbicide treatment. Overall, fluazifop-P-butyl provided greater control than sethoxydim, resulting in 71% and 94% relative growth reduction in total shoot length with oil and water carriers, respectively, compared with 50% and 43% reduction for sethoxydim. Fluazifop also provided control similar to triclopyr and glyphosate (≥65% reduction in total shoot length). Results suggest that CS treatments may be a viable strategy for managing N. reynaudiana and reducing management costs. However, more research is needed to optimize rates. Further, fluazifop-P-butyl allows for a more selective option than glyphosate that may decrease off-target effects on native understory vegetation in pine rocklands.
Ventenata [Ventenata dubia (Leers) Coss.] is a nonindigenous, invasive grass in the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States. It appears to be present in the PNW without any evidence of disease expression. Surveys of V. dubia in the PNW (Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington) were entirely negative for fungi, including types of pathogens that might be expected in grasses (e.g., rust, powdery mildew, choke). In Europe, where V. dubia is native, fungi were documented (i.e., Septoria ventenatae Sandu, Tilletia fusca Ellis & Everh., and Tilletia elisabethae T. Denchev & Denchev) on V. dubia. In its native range there likely are natural enemies that may limit V. dubia abundance, and these may include fungal pathogens. Pathogens of V. dubia from its native range may hold potential for use as classical biological control agents in North America, and if deemed safe, could be introduced. To ascertain V. dubia's native range, we compiled data from herbarium specimens, consulted with herbarium curators in the region, and searched relevant literature. We found that V. dubia primarily is reported in southern Europe and western Asia. Ventenata dubia has been reported only occasionally from North Africa in Algeria and Morocco. The common name “North Africa grass” likely originated from references to V. dubia in the 19th-century botanical explorations in Algeria of the French botanist, Ernest Cosson, who published the current scientific name based on a preexisting name in 1854. Another finding of interest is that the latitudinal range of collections from Europe and North Africa of V. dubia spans Tunisia to Finland. The plant may thus be adapted to a range of environments, indicating it could become more widely distributed in North America. Efforts to search its native range for pathogens should also consider the range of environmental conditions found within its native and introduced ranges.