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Using bioclimatic belts as habitat and distribution predictors, the present study examines the implications of the potential distributions of the three Iberian damselflies, Calopteryx Leach (Odonata: Calopterygidae), with the aim of investigating the possible consequences in specific interactions among the species from a sexual selection perspective and of discussing biogeographical patterns. To obtain the known distributions, the literature on this genus was reviewed, relating the resulting distributions to bioclimatic belts. Specific patterns related to bioclimatic belts were clearly observed in the Mediterranean region. The potential distribution maps and relative frequencies might involve latitudinal differences in relative abundances, C. virgo meridionalis Sélys being the most abundant species in the Eurosiberian region, C. xanthostoma (Charpentier) in the northern half of the Mediterranean region and C. haemorrhoidalis (Vander Linden) in the rest of this region. These differences might explain some previously described latitudinal differences in secondary sexual traits in the three species. Changes in relative abundances may modulate interactions among these species in terms of sexual selection and may produce sexual character displacement in this genus. C. virgo meridionalis distribution and ecological requirements explain its paleobiogeography as a species which took refuge in Iberia during the Würm glaciation. Finally, possible consequences in species distributions and interactions are discussed within a global climate change context.