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Galla Rhois is formed by aphids, primarily Schlechtendalia chinensis Bell (Homoptera: Pemphigidae), on the leaf of sumac, Rhus javanica L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae). It is a tannin-rich herb that is widely used in traditional Korean medicine. Its various pharmacological effects, including its radical-scavenging effects, have been reported. The purpose of the current study was to determine if these radical-scavenging effects can be confirmed using in vitro assays and to investigate its neuroprotective effects, optimal dosage, mechanisms, and therapeutic time window in an animal model of stroke. Galla Rhois 85% methanol extract (GRE) exhibited potent and dose-dependent radical-scavenging effects on various radicals. Oral administration of GRE (300 mg/kg) in a transient focal cerebral ischemia rat model (two hours of occlusion followed by 22 hours of reperfusion) reduced the brain infarct volume by 37.5%. It also improved sensory motor function and reduced lipid-peroxidation in middle cerebral artery occlusion. However, it did not have any inhibitory effects on brain edema. The time window study revealed that pre- and co-treatment with GRE had protective effects, but post-treatment with GRE (three or six hours after ischemia) did not have protective effects. In conclusion, GRE had potent radical-scavenging activities and neuroprotective effects in a rat model of stroke when it was pre- and co-administered. The optimal dosage may be around 300 mg/kg for oral administration.