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The juvenile hormone analog methoprene, and the chitin synthesis inhibitor novaluron, were evaluated by exposing late-stage larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) or Tribolium confusum (Jacqueline DuVal) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to it. The larvae were exposed to it in food material, on concrete, on plywood, and on floor tile. Larvae of T. castaneum were more susceptible than T. confusum larvae to both methoprene and novaluron on all surfaces. A further evaluation was done by exposing adult T. confusum to methoprene and novaluron through food placed on concrete treated with methoprene and novaluron, and then assessing resulting progeny production. The emergence of adults with normal morphology was reduced for both chemicals, with more malformed adults appearing in the methoprene treatment, and fewer adults of any form emerging in the novaluron treatment. The results show direct exposures to larvae, or determining progeny production from exposed adults, are valid methods for assessing the susceptibility of flour beetles to insecticides.
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