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Insect communities depend on both their local environment and features of the surrounding habitats. Diverse plant communities may enhance the abundance and species diversity of local natural enemies, which is possible due to a higher abundance and species diversity in complex landscapes. This hypothesis was tested using cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids by comparing 18 spring wheat fields, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), in structurally-complex landscapes (dominated by semi-natural habitat, > 50%, n = 9) and structurally-simple landscapes dominated by arable landscape (dominated by crop land, > 80%, n = 9). The agricultural landscape structure had significant effects on the number of parasitoid and hyper-parasitoid species, as 26 species (17 parasitoids and 9 hyper-parasitoids) were found in the complex landscapes and 21 were found in the simple landscapes (14 parasitoids and 7 hyper-parasitoids). Twenty-one species occurred in both landscape types, including 14 parasitoids and 7 hyper-parasitoids species. The species diversity of parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids were significantly different between the complex and simple landscapes. In addition, arable fields in structurally-simple agricultural landscapes with little semi-natural habitats could support a lower diversity of cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids than structurally-complex landscapes. These findings suggest that cereal aphid parasitoids and hyper-parasitoids need to find necessary resources in structurally-complex landscapes, and generalizations are made concerning the relationship between landscape composition and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Overall, abundance, species richness, and species diversity increased with increasing plant diversity and landscape complexity in spring wheat fields and increasing amounts of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape.
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